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朱平阳,Heong Kongluen,Sylvia VILLAREAL,吕仲贤.氮肥影响节肢动物天敌对褐飞虱种群的自然控制作用.生态学报,2017,(16).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201605220984  
氮肥影响节肢动物天敌对褐飞虱种群的自然控制作用
Application of nitrogen fertilizer affects natural control of rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens St?l) by arthropod natural enemies
投稿时间:2016-05-22  最后修改时间:2017-03-04
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201605220984
关键词稻田  氮肥  天敌  捕食作用  自然控制
Key Wordsrice field  nitrogen fertilizer  natural enemy  predation  natural control function
基金项目国家重点研发计划支持项目(2016YFD0200800),浙江省重点研发计划(2015C02014);浙江省植物有害生物防控省部共建国家重点实验室培育基地自主设计项目(2010DS700124-ZZ1601)
作者单位E-mail
朱平阳 浙江省农业科学院植物保护与微生物研究所金华市植物保护站 zpy85@163.com 
Heong Kongluen 菲律宾国际水稻研究所马来西亚国际农业和生物科学中心  
Sylvia VILLAREAL 菲律宾国际水稻研究所  
吕仲贤 浙江省农业科学院植物保护与微生物研究所 luzxmh@163.com 
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摘要:
氮肥在增加粮食产量的同时也可能对整个农田生态系统产生负面影响。稻田过量施用氮肥后,会提高水稻对害虫的敏感性、改变害虫与天敌之间的关系,最终影响到天敌对害虫的自然控制功能,导致害虫大发生。为了合理、公正地评价施用氮肥对稻田节肢动物天敌对害虫自然控制能力的影响,探索性地应用笼罩的方法在菲律宾国际水稻研究所试验农场稻田中研究了害虫天敌在不同氮肥施用水平(0, 100 kg N /hm2 和 200 kg N /hm2)稻田中对褐飞虱的捕食能力及自然控制作用。试验结果表明,旱季田间的捕食性天敌对褐飞虱若虫的捕食能力和主要天敌对褐飞虱种群的自然控制能力均随稻田氮肥施用量的增加而减弱。在雨季,虽然天敌对褐飞虱种群的自然控制能力也随稻田氮肥施用量的增加而减弱,但捕食性天敌对褐飞虱若虫捕食能力的差异不明显。本研究表明,天敌对褐飞虱自然控制能力的减弱是稻田过量施用氮肥后褐飞虱种群猖獗的主要原因之一。
Abstract:
Rice crop yields often increase with applications of nitrogenous fertilizer. However excessive nitrogen use can also increase the susceptibility of the crop to pests and diseases. In addition excess nitrogen in water systems is a pollutant that can threaten aquatic fauna and human health. Increased crop susceptibility to insect pests also affects the relationship between pests and their natural enemies and thus can reduce natural control that can potentially result in outbreaks. To evaluate these effects of nitrogen on the natural control of insect pests by arthropod natural enemies in rice field, we experimentally explored the predation ability and natural control capacity by arthropod natural enemies on the rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens St?l using different nitrogen fertilizer regimes in field plots conducted in the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The natural enemy exclusion method was used in filed plots where nitrogen (0, 200 kg N /hm2 and 200 kg N /hm2) was applied at and repeated for both the dry and wet season. BPH and natural enemy densities of inside the exclusion cages were monitored using the Blower-vac insect suction device. The predatory capacities on BPH nymphs by generalist predators, and the functions of natural biological control on BPH populations by natural enemies including predators and parasitoids were studied. Results showed that the predation ability of natural enemies and the natural control functions were significantly weakened with the increasing use of nitrogen fertilizer in dry season. Predation rates of natural enemies with the highest nitrogen use (200 kg N /hm2) were all lower than 40%. Nitrogen levels, rice growth stages and their interaction had significant effects on the predation ability. The rate of natural control (RNC) in rice fields with no nitrogen application (0 kg N /hm2) in the different growth stages was more than 95%, highest among the 3 nitrogen fertilizer levels. The natural biological control functions in wet season had no significant effects on the predation ability in the different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. The different nitrogen fertilizer levels had no effects on the natural enemies. Meanwhile obvious higher densities of the natural biological control functions of BPH in rice fields applied with high usage of nitrogen fertilizer than that with low. This phenomenon indicates that a high nitrogen fertilizer application decreased the control ability of the natural enemies, on the other hand, the BPH population increases too fast with the high nitrogen fertilizer application, that beyond their natural enemies’ control ability. Our results strongly supports the conclusion that excessive applications of nitrogen fertilizer in rice fields make them vulnerable to BPH outbreaks through weakening of the natural control functions of the natural enemies.
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