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黄东科,梁华芳,张志.温度对波纹龙虾存活、摄食、蜕壳和生长的影响.生态学报,2017,(18).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201606251247  
温度对波纹龙虾存活、摄食、蜕壳和生长的影响
The effect of temperature on the survival, food intake, molt and growth of Panulirus homarus
投稿时间:2016-06-25  最后修改时间:2017-04-09
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201606251247
关键词波纹龙虾  温度  存活  摄食  蜕壳  生长
Key WordsPanulirus homarus  water temperature  survival  food intake  molt  growth
基金项目广东省科技厅项目(2011B090400153),广东省海洋与渔业科技推广专项(A2010-08D04),国家级大学生创新创业训练计划项目 (201210566008)
作者单位E-mail
黄东科 广东海洋大学水产学院 huangdongke@126.com 
梁华芳 广东海洋大学 hfliang@126.com 
张志 广东海洋大学水产学院  
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摘要:
波纹龙虾是热带和亚热带重要经济虾类,养殖潜力巨大。本文进行温度渐变和骤变对波纹龙虾存活、摄食影响试验,以确定存活和摄食的水温范围;进行了波纹龙虾在不同温度条件下(22、25、28、31、34℃)对其存活率、饵料用效率、蜕壳和生长情况的影响试验,以确定最适养殖水温,试验时间90 d。结果表明:波纹龙虾的生存温度范围为13—36℃,适宜温度为20—30℃。在温度22—31℃范围内,波纹龙虾的存活率和特定生长率随着温度的升高表现为先升后降,在28℃达到最大值,各组之间差异显著(P< 0.05);温度对波纹龙虾的鲜活饵料利用效率有显著影响,饵料系数最高的是31℃组,为6.43±0.28;28℃组的波纹龙虾饵料系数最低,为5.75±0.70,与其它各组有显著差异(P< 0.05)。波纹龙虾的蜕壳周期随着温度的升高逐渐缩短,31℃组周期最短(16.7 d),22℃蜕壳周期最长(18.8 d),但各组之间差异不显著(P >0.05)。综合以上因素考虑,波纹龙虾养殖水温宜控制在28℃。
Abstract:
Abstract: The spiny lobster Panulirus homarus is an economically important lobster in the tropical and subtropical areas with a great potential for aquaculture. To identify the water temperature range for survival and feeding, the effects of gradual and acute temperature change on feeding and survival of P. homarus were investigated in this study. The effects of different temperatures (22, 25, 28, 31, and 34℃) on survival rate, feed utilization efficiency, molting, and growth of P. homarus were tested to determine the optimum culture temperature. The experiments were lasted for 90 d, and the results showed that the survival temperature range of P. homarus was 13–36℃, and the optimum temperature was at 20–30℃. In the temperature range 22–31℃, the survival rate and specific growth rate began to increase, peaked at 28℃, and then decreased. Significant differences were observed among different temperature groups (P < 0.05). Temperature has a significant effect on feed conversion ratio (FCR) for P. homarus. The 31℃ group had the highest FCR (6.43 ± 0.28), the lowest FCR occurred for the 28℃ group (5.75 ± 0.70), which was significantly different from that of the other groups. The molt cycle duration of P. homarus decreased with the increase in temperature. Spiny lobsters cultured at 31℃ had the shortest molt cycle duration (16.7 d), and the longest molt duration occurred at 22℃ being 18.8 d; however, there were no significant differences among the test groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, in aquaculture of P. homarus, water temperature should be controlled at 28℃.
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