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刘鹏,张微微.官山自然保护区白颈长尾雉季节性生境选择比较.生态学报,2017,(18).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201606231229  
官山自然保护区白颈长尾雉季节性生境选择比较
Seasonal changes in habitat selection of Syrmaticus ellioti in Guanshan National Nature Reserve
投稿时间:2016-06-23  最后修改时间:2017-04-11
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201606231229
关键词白颈长尾雉  生境选择  判别分析  官山自然保护区
Key WordsSyrmaticus ellioti  Habitat selection  Discriminant analysis  Guanshan Nature Reserve
基金项目国家自然科学基金(31360521);江西省科技计划项目(2013BBG70004,2013BAB214013);江西省教育厅项目(GJJ13277)
作者单位E-mail
刘鹏 江西省林业科学院 liupeng19850516@163.com 
张微微 江西农业大学林学院/江西农业大学野生动植物资源保护研究中心 zhangweiwei_nefu@163.com 
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摘要:
2009年10月至2010年11月,2015年7月至11月在江西官山自然保护区对白颈长尾雉不同生活史阶段的(繁殖期、育雏期、繁殖后期)生境选择进行了比较研究。设置了6条固定样线,调查了126个样方,选取了与其生境相关的17个因子进行了观察与测量。研究结果表明,不同生活史阶段各生境选择样方负荷绝对值较大的因子在各主成分中的序位不尽相同,即生境选择的主要生态因子随生活史阶段而变化。卡方检验及单因素方差分析结果显示,各生活史阶段,白颈长尾雉对林型、坡向、坡度、灌木高度、草本高度和水源距离6个生态因子上无显著差异(P≥0.05),其余11个生态因子两两之间存在显著差异或极显著差异。典则判别结果显示,白颈长尾雉在不同生活史阶段在生境选择上存在一定程度的重叠,又有较为明显的差异。逐步判别表明,在不同生活史阶段,白颈长尾雉生境选择差异上有一系列的生态因子发挥作用,依照贡献值的大小依次为草本数量、落叶层盖度、乔木盖度、海拔和乔木数量,由这5个变量构成的方程对生境选择差异的正确区分率为80.3%。繁殖期和越冬期食物条件是影响白颈长尾雉生境选择的主要因素,而育雏期则为隐蔽条件。
Abstract:
Habitat selection of Syrmaticus ellioti was studied respectively in spring, summer, autumn and winter in Guanshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China from October 2009 to November 2010 and July to October in 2015 . Seventeen ecological factors were measured across 126 sites used by Syrmaticus ellioti by direct observation in six sampling transects. We identified a number of 27 used sites in spring,46 used sites in summer , 53 used sites in autumn and winter.The results of principal component analysis of the order location of these factors in principal components differed in different seasons, in other words, the key factors influencing the habitat selection of the Syrmaticus elliori differed as seasons change. Results of principal components analysis indicated that 6 principal components explained 77.54% of the total variance in habitat selection during spring,the first principal component accounted for 19.88% in spring were positively related to herbage coverage , herbage quantity and herbage height ; 7 principal components explained 74.68% of the total variance in habitat selection during summer,and the first principal component accounted for 14.56% in summer was positively related to arbor quantity; and 7 principal components explained 78.02% of the total variance in habitat selection during autumn and winter,the first principal component accounted for 18.29% in autumn and winter wre positively related to shrub coverage , herbage coverage, herbage specie , herbage quantity .Six ecological factors (vegetation type, slope orientation, slope degree, shrub height, herbage height, distance to water) were not significant (P≥0.05) , Other ecological factors were significant difference between any two seasons by X2test and One-way ANOVA. The Fisher linear function discriminated Syrmaticus ellioti seasonal habitats are: Fspring= -0.043 × Herbage quantity 0.088 × Leaf litter coverage 0.241 × Arbor coverage 0.039 × Elevation - 0.043 × Arbor quantity - 21.787;Fsummer= -0.024 × Herbage quantity 0.119 × Leaf litter coverage 0.272 × Arbor coverage 0.039 × Elevation - 0.024 × Arbor quantity - 27.629; Fautumn and winter= 0.099 × Herbage quantity 0.159 × Leaf litter coverage 0.208 × Arbor coverage 0.031 × Elevation 0.099 × Arbor quantity - 22.895. The habitat selection of the Syrmaticus elliori showed obvious difference but also some certain overlap in different life stages revealed by the Canonical scores. A stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that herbage quantity, leaf litter coverage, arbor coverage, elevation, arbor quantity were the critical factors distinguishing habitat selection in different seasons. Predicted classification accuracy of the model was 80.3%. Food condition was the primary factor influencing the habitat selection of the Syrmaticus ellioti during the breeding and wintering season; however, shelter condition was main factor for brood period.
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