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李丽娟,张吉,吴丹,殷旭旺,徐宗学,张 远.太子河流域鱼类功能群结构与多样性对土地利用类型的响应关系研究.生态学报,2017,(20).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201608181693  
太子河流域鱼类功能群结构与多样性对土地利用类型的响应关系研究
Relationships between structure and diversity of fish functional groups and land use in the Taizi River
投稿时间:2016-08-18  最后修改时间:2017-05-07
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201608181693
关键词土地利用类型  功能群  环境因子  鱼类  群落结构
Key Wordsland use type  functional groups  environment factors  fish  community structure
基金项目辽宁省优秀人才支持计划项目(LR2015009);国家“水体污染控制与治理”重大科技专项,流域水生态保护目标制定技术研究课题(2012ZX07501-001)
作者单位E-mail
李丽娟 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院 lilijuan17@163.com 
张吉 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院  
吴丹 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院  
殷旭旺 大连海洋大学 yinxuwang@dlou.edu.cn 
徐宗学 北京师范大学水科学研究院  
张 远 中国环境科学研究院  
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摘要:
研究河岸带土地利用方式对河流生物群落的影响对河岸带管理和河流生态系统修复至关重要。本文研究了太子河河岸带的土地利用类型(森林用地、森林耕作用地、耕地和城镇建设用地)和鱼类功能群的关系,结果表明:栖息地质量参数在不同土地利用类型内具有显著差异,森林用地区电导率、总溶解固体、淤泥和底质含沙量比例的平均值均较低,分别为(105.05μs/cm、80.38 mg/L、65.00ml 和0%),底质类型以石块为主;耕作区的水深、流量和淤泥的平均值均是最高(186.83m、80.11m3 和5333.33ml ),底质类型以沙质和淤泥为主。太子河流域鱼类功能群划分为5种类型(18个亚类),在不同土地利用类型内具有差异显著,森林用地内的鱼食性、石块栖功能群、昆虫食性和黏性卵功能群的比例最高;森林耕作用地内的植食性和底层栖功能群的比例最高;耕地内的沙栖功能群、中下层栖功能群和筑巢产卵功能群的比例最高;城镇建设用地内的淤泥栖功能群、耐污种、中下层栖功能群和杂食性功能群的比例最高。研究显示,栖息地评价得分高、栖境复杂的区域其个体数量较高,而栖息地得分低、底质类型以淤泥为主的区域其个体数量较低。
Abstract:
Understanding the effects of land use on river biota is important for riverbank management and river ecosystem restoration. To assess the relationship between land-use change and the functional groups of fish communities, 40 sample sites were investigated in the Taizi River Basin, China, in May 2012. The results indicated that the dominant species of fish in the Taizi River Basin were Phoxinus lagowskii, Nemachilus nudus, Abbottina rivularis, and Zacco platypus, which accounted for 34.6%, 5.3%, 5.4%, and 7.3% of the total fish, respectively. In addition, we observed some rare species such as Lampetra morii, Huigobio chinssuensis, and Hypseleotris swinhonis. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that dissolved oxygen, index of substrate(IOS), electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, habitat evaluation score, and sediment concentration had stronger effects on the whole fish community than water pH, velocity, flow, and depth. One way ANOVA analysis revealed that the habitat characteristics exhibited significant differences among the four land use types. In sample sites with forest land use type, conductivity, total dissolved solids, and sediment sand composition were 105.05 μs/cm, 80.38 mg/L, 65.00 ml, and 0.00, respectively, which were lower than those of other sample sites. Water depth, flow rate, and the average percentage of silt were highest in sample sites with farmland as main land use type, which were 186.83 m, 80.11 m3, and 5333.33 mL, respectively. Functional groups of fish were divided into five types (18 subcategories), with significant differences among the four land use types. The percentages of piscivores, stones, feeding insects, and sticky eggs were highest in sample sites with forest as main land use type, whereas the percentages of herbivores and their underlying functional groups were highest in the forest and farmland mixing zone. The percentages of sand, middle water layer, and nesting functional group were higher in sample sites with farmland as main land use type, and the percentages of silt, tolerance to pollution, lower water layer, omnivorous species were higher in sample sites with urban as main land use type. This study showed that the number of individuals of fish was positively correlated with the habitat quality and was negatively correlated with the roughness of sediment type. Different types of land use can lead to changes in the water environment, which in turn can result to changes in the functional groups of fish communities. The habitat quality of forest land and the combination of forest and farmland was the best at maintaining the integrity of fish community structure. Therefore, for land use planning, it is necessary to consider forest land and the combination of forest and farmland.
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