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李红林,贡璐,刘雨桐,安申群.N、P施肥对塔里木河上游绿洲棉花C、N、P生态化学计量特征的影响.生态学报,2017,(22).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201609201891  
N、P施肥对塔里木河上游绿洲棉花C、N、P生态化学计量特征的影响
Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of oasis cotton in the upper reaches of Tarim River, Xinjiang, China
投稿时间:2016-09-20  修订日期:2017-06-14
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201609201891
关键词限制性元素  生长速率假说  内稳性  绿洲棉花  塔里木河上游
Key Wordsrestrictive elements  growth rate hypothesis  homeostasis  oasis cotton  upper reaches of the Tarim River
基金项目新疆青年科技创新人才培养工程项目(qn2015yx002);国家自然科学基金项目(41461105);新疆维吾尔自治区研究生科研创新项目 (XJGRI2015020)
作者单位E-mail
李红林 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院 lihonglin205@163.com 
贡璐 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院 gonglu721@163.com 
刘雨桐 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院  
安申群 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院  
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摘要:
施肥通过外源物质的添加直接干预了农田生态系统中作物元素的运移循环过程。本研究通过野外N、P施肥试验,测定棉花各生育期碳(C)、氮(N)、磷(P)元素含量及其生物量,分析棉株C、N、P元素的分配规律,探讨棉株对生长速率调控的内在机制,获得棉株体内N、P元素的内稳性指数,并判断其限制性元素类型。结果表明:棉花C、N、P元素平均含量分别为388.7、20.97、3.43 g.kg-1;棉花比生长速率与N:P、C:P间均存在负相关关系,棉花生长符合生长速率假说;N、P元素内稳性指数H分别在1.02~5.28、1.01~4.55范围内。叶片N:P可表征植物限制性元素类型,棉花最大生长速率所对应的叶片N:P为13,是判断限制元素的标准;综合棉花生长速率和内稳性指数研究可知研究区棉花生长受到N、P元素的共同限制,同时,在生长前期更易受P元素的限制,生长后期更易受N元素的限制。
Abstract:
C, N and P are the basic chemical elements required for plant growth and regulation and their balance and stability play an important role in many physiological functions. Ecological stoichiometry combines the first law of thermodynamics, the theory of evolution by natural selection and the central dogma of molecular biology and has organically integrated biological studies at the scales of molecules, cells, species groups, communities and ecosystems. C, N and P stoichiometry of plants reflects a complex interplay relation that is a result of plants adapted to the changing biological and abiotic environments in evolutionary processes. Therefore, it is important to investigate the patterns of stoichiometric flexibility within and among plant species. Homeostasis and the growth rate hypothesis (GRH) have always been considered the two important theories of ecological stoichiometry. Homeostasis is the ability of organisms to maintain relatively stable chemical compositions regardless of environmental changes. The growth rate hypothesis considers that there is a close relationship between C: N: P stoichiometry and growth rate and it proposes that fast-growing organisms have low biomass C: P and N: P ratios. Fertilization by adding the exogenous substances directly disturbs elements’ migration and circulation of crop in the farmland ecosystem. To further understand the response of the crop growth to fertilization, this study measured the cotton C, N and P contents and biomass of cotton plant by a pot experiment in the upper reaches of Tarim River with N and P fertilizer additions. Results showed that the mean content of C, N and P was 388.7、20.97 and 3.43 g?kg-1, respectively. The growth rate of cotton decreased with increasing leaf N: P or C: P and the growth of cotton consistented with GRH. Plants with higher H have stronger homeostasis, that is, stronger control of element change. H in cotton ranged from 1.02 to 5.28 for N, 1.01 to 4.55 for P. Researchers reported that homeostasis is gradually enhanced from prokaryotic to ukaryotic organisms. H of cotton was between H of prokaryotic and H of ukaryotic organisms, it consisted with predecessors'' research results. Leaf N: P ratios have been widely used to indicate soil nutrient availability and nutrient limitation. Cotton growth was mainly restricted by N and P. The value of cotton leaf N: P was 13 during the cotton maximum growth rate, which was the standard of judging the limiting element. It conformed to the law of demand of cotton growth.
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