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赵天启,杜宇凡,陈万杰,王亚婷,王 玺,贾丽欣,王舒新,古 琛,赵萌莉.不同利用方式下典型草原植物群落物种多度分布格局.生态学报,2017,(23).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201612212630  
不同利用方式下典型草原植物群落物种多度分布格局
Species-abundance distribution of typical steppe grassland plant communities under different use patterns
投稿时间:2016-12-21  修订日期:2017-08-16
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201612212630
关键词典型草原  放牧  刈割  围封  物种多度分布格局
Key Wordstypical steppe  grazing  mowing  enclosure  species-abundance distribution pattern  
基金项目内蒙古温性草原牧区“生产生态生活”优化保障技术集成与示范(2012BAD13B02);牧区优质高效饲草生产利用技术研究示范项目(201003023)
作者单位E-mail
赵天启 内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境环境学院 1320540149@qq.com 
杜宇凡 内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境环境学院  
陈万杰 内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境环境学院  
王亚婷 内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境环境学院  
王 玺 内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境环境学院  
贾丽欣 内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境环境学院  
王舒新 内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境环境学院  
古 琛 内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境环境学院  
赵萌莉 内蒙古农业大学草原与资源环境环境学院 nmgmlzh@126.com 
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摘要:
物种多度格局是群落结构的重要反映,它描述了群落内不同物种个体数量的分布情况,能更好的体现出物种关系和作用机制。根据物种的多度格局追溯物种的作用机制过程是揭示群落本质的重要方式。试验以内蒙古典型草原为研究对象,采用生态位重叠模型(ONM)、生态位优先占领模型(NPM)、断棍模型(BSM)、优势优先模型(DPM)和随机分配模型(RAM)共5种生态位模型与群落植物物种进行拟合,按照拟合程度分析放牧、割草两种利用方式下植物群落物种多度分布格局。旨在探究不同利用方式下物种之间的多度关系,利用具有不同生态学意义的数学模型探讨各个利用方式下植物群落的真实分布,以达到运用模型研究群落结构的目的,进而揭示不同利用方式下典型草原群落结构变化,为草地合理利用提供依据。结果表明:刈割区、放牧区和围封区的物种数分别为33种、16种和29种,相较于围封对照区,刈割区的物种数增加了12%,而放牧区的物种数减少了44.8%。群落优势种大针茅、糙隐子草、知母、羊草和黄囊薹草在刈割区、放牧区及对照区的出现频度分别占整个群落物种总频度的88.33%、81.47%和75.6%。放牧、割草利用下最优拟合模型分别为随机分配模型RAM(χ2=92.99,AIC=168.86,BIC=171.18)和生态位优先占领模型NPM(χ2=22.29,AIC=246.17,BIC=250.27),而对照所表现的最优拟合模型也为生态位优先占领模型NPM(χ2=90.51,AIC=321.32,BIC=325.81);生态位优先占领模型NPM对放牧利用下的拟合效果也较好,随机分配模型RAM对于割草和围封两种利用方式的吻合度较差。
Abstract:
The species-abundance pattern is an important reflection of community structure, which describes the distribution and number of different species within a community, and can better reflect the relationships among species and their mechanisms. It is a crucial way to reveal the nature of the community by tracing the mechanisms among species based on species-abundance pattern. A typical grassland in Inner Mongolia was selected as the object to analyze species-abundance patterns of the plant communities under grazing and mowing. Five niche models, the overlapping niche model (ONM), niche preemption model (NPM), broken stick model (BSM), dominance preemption model (DPM), and random allocation model (RAM), were used to fit the plant species. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between species abundance and different land utilization patterns, 2) to explore the real distribution of plant communities under different utilization patterns by using mathematical models with different ecological significance, 3) to reveal the typical grassland community structure changes under different land uses, and 4) to provide the basis for the rational use of grasslands. The results showed that there were 33 species, 16 species, and 29 species in the mowing plot, grazing plot, and enclosed plot, respectively. Compared with the number of species in the enclosed plot, that in the mowing plot increased by 12%, while it decreased by 44.8% in grazing plot. The frequencies of the dominant species, Stipa grandis, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Leymus chinensis, and Carex korshinskyi in the mowing, grazing, and enclosed plots accounted for 88.33%, 81.47%, and 75.6%, respectively, of the total species community. The optimal fitting models were RAM (χ2 = 92.99, AIC = 168.86, BIC = 171.18) and NPM (χ2 = 22.29, AIC = 246.17, BIC = 250.27) for grazing and mowing plots, respectively, while the optimal fitting model for the enclosed plot was NPM (χ2 = 90.51, AIC = 321.32, BIC = 325.81). The model NPM had a better fitting effect on grazing utilization, and the RAM is less consistent with mowing and use of enclosures.
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