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李晓锋,姚晓军,孙美平,宫鹏,安丽娜,祁苗苗,高永鹏.2000-2014年我国西北地区湖泊面积时空变化.生态学报,2018,(1).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201612262677  
2000-2014年我国西北地区湖泊面积时空变化
Spatial-temporal variations of lakes in Northwest China from 2000 to 2014
投稿时间:2016-12-26  修订日期:2017-08-09
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201612262677
关键词湖泊  时空变化  遥感  西北地区
Key Wordslake  spatial-temporal variations  remote sensing  northwest China
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(41261016); 中国科学院冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室开放基金项目(SKLCS-OP-2016-10)
作者单位E-mail
李晓锋 西北师范大学 lixiaofeng_geo@163.com 
姚晓军 西北师范大学 yaoxj_nwnu@163.com 
孙美平 西北师范大学  
宫鹏 西北师范大学  
安丽娜 西北师范大学  
祁苗苗 西北师范大学  
高永鹏 西北师范大学  
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摘要:
以2000~2014年Landsat TM、ETM 以及OLI影像为基础,通过人工目视解译方法提取我国西北地区111个面积10.0 km2以上湖泊矢量数据,并对湖泊面积变化总体趋势、空间分异特征以及成因进行分析。结果表明:(1)2000~2014年期间,西北地区湖泊总面积呈整体增加的态势,由1.58×104 km2增加为1.74×104 km2。(2)在研究时段内,我国西北地区湖泊面积在整体增加的同时也表现出明显的空间差异。根据湖泊面积变化不同,研究区可以被划分为稳定、扩张、萎缩3种类型和5个区域:新疆维吾尔自治区北部与青海省南部为湖泊面积稳定区;塔里木盆地、昆仑山北麓、阿尔金山、柴达木盆地、可可西里地区、祁连山南麓至三江源北部大片区域为湖泊面积扩张区;由准噶尔盆地和吐鲁番盆地组成的北疆中部地区和喀喇昆仑山北坡山区为湖泊萎缩区。(3)受研究区复杂的自然人文环境影响,在不同区域引起湖泊面积变化的原因不尽相同:总体而言,降水增加、气温上升导致的冰川融水增加和冻土水分释放是湖泊面积呈现扩张趋势地区的最主要原因;在湖泊面积稳定区,湖泊所处的地形条件以及湖泊与河流间强烈的水量交换起着关键作用;日益增强的人类活动是湖泊萎缩区的主要影响要素,但在喀喇昆仑山北坡地区,冰川物质平衡状态的变化也可能发挥着重要作用。
Abstract:
Based on Landsat TM/ETM /OLI remote sensing images in the period from 2000 to 2014, the vectorized boundary of 111 lakes with the area above 10 km2 in northwest China were obtained by artificial visual interpretation technology, and the causes for lake variations were also analyzed. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) From 2000 to 2014, the lakes in northwest China had been expanding and their area increased from 1.58×104 km2 to 1.74×104 km2. (2) The lakes showed an overall expansion trend, however, some regional differences were also discovered and the study area could be divided into five sub-regions according to the change of lakes area. The lakes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and southern Qinghai province were stable. The lakes showing an extending trend were widely distributed in Inner Mongolia-Xin Jiang Lake Zone and Tibetan Plateau Lake Zone. This region from west to east included Tarim Basin, northern piedmont of Kunlun Mountains, Altun Mountains, Hoh Xil, Qaidam Basin, southern piedmont of Qilian Mountains and northern Three-River source region. The lakes shrinking were mainly located in two regions which consisted of the central northern Xinjiang including Junggar Basin, Turpan Depression and the northern Karakorum Mountains. (3) Affected by the complex environment, the reasons leading to lake change were different in northwest China. In general, the increase in precipitation and melt water from glaciers and frozen soil due to climate warming were the dominant factors in the lakes expanding region; the state of glacier mass balance and human activities played an important role in the lakes shrunk region; the topographic characteristics of lake such as intensive hydraulic connection between lake and river were the main factors in the stable lake region.
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