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张启,方欧娅.山西忻州地区1900年以来典型森林的健康历史.生态学报,2018,(1).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201612222650  
山西忻州地区1900年以来典型森林的健康历史
History of forest health since 1900 AD in Xinzhou Prefecture, Shanxi Province, China
投稿时间:2016-12-22  修订日期:2017-07-29
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201612222650
关键词森林健康  生长历史  山西忻州  树木年轮
Key Wordsforest health, tree-ring, growth history, Xinzhou county
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(31330015)
作者单位E-mail
张启 山西师范大学 1249540632@qq.com 
方欧娅 中国科学院植物研究所 oyfang@ibcas.ac.cn 
摘要点击次数 51
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摘要:
健康的森林对维持其区域生态系统服务起着至关重要的作用,了解树木的生长历史对评估气候变化背景下森林的健康状况具有促进作用。选择山西高原中北部忻州地区保存较好的4个森林为研究对象,利用树木年轮学方法分析其生长变化特征,获得了该地区森林健康的时间和空间特征。结果表明:该地区森林在过去1个世纪中,存在3次不健康事件(1910—1940、1970—1987和1990—2012年)且在空间上表现出明显的同步性,不同时期的不健康事件持续时间和强度不尽相同,1930s的不健康事件持续时间最长也最为显着。树木径向生长与气象观测资料的相关分析显示,该地区森林生长主要与当年5—6月份温度呈负相关,与7月份降水和5—9月PDSI指数显着正相关。生长季持续的高温或降水减少造成的极端干旱事件是不健康事件空间一致性的主要驱动力,各采样点树种以及林分组成差异是影响时间特征不一致的可能原因。研究结果提供的森林健康历史数据对评估极端气候条件对森林健康生长的影响及制定合理的森林保护措施具有积极的现实意义。
Abstract:
Forest health is a serious problem worldwide. Knowledge of the intensity and causes of rapidly declining forests is important for managing various forest types under the scenario of climate change. In the present study, we report on the health conditions of four young conifer forests by applying dendrochronological techniques to measure unexpected growth decline in Xinzhou District, northern Shanxi Plateau. A total of 86 samples in the form of increment cores were obtained from the study sites. The widths of tree-rings from all the samples were measured and cross-dated, then each individual tree series was standardized to identify health conditions using spatial characteristics of temporal growth. We defined unhealthy tree growth intervals as being a decrease in the growth of the individual (tree–ring index < 0.9) for at least five years when the mean tree–ring index was less than 0.7 and at least one year of tree–ring index values reached a minimum of 0.5. We calculated the percentage of trees that were unhealthy in each year, and defined an unhealthy event for the site if greater than 30% of the trees were in decline. We found three major unexpected decline growth events in the majority of individual trees in the four forests, these being 1910–1940, 1970–1987, and 1990–2012. However, the growth declines in each forest showed deviations in intensity and duration such as declines were more vigorous in the KeLan forest during the 1930s than in the other forests. To better understand the causes of the unhealthy events, a correlation analysis was performed for the three tree ring width chronologies and the meteorological records. The correlation coefficients showed that forest growth was negatively associated with May–June temperatures. However, precipitation revealed positive correlation in July and the Palmer Drought Severity Index showed positive correlation over the growing season of May–September. To validate these results, we compared our study with historical records and local paleoclimate studies. The drought events recorded in the historical documents and other paleoclimate reconstructions reasonably matched our results. These results suggest that extreme drought events caused by persistent high temperature or reduction of precipitation in the growing season are the main driving factors for radial growth decreases in trees, which was the main reason for the spatial coherence of unhealthy events. The differentiation of local stand characteristics or tree species might play a role in the inconsistency of the time characteristics. Therefore, the present study provides useful information for forest health, which has positive and realistic significance for assessing the impact of extreme climatic conditions on the healthy growth of forests and for developing reasonable forest protection measures.
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