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李志,袁颖丹,胡耀文,孟文武,张学玲,郭晓敏,张文元,胡冬南,牛德奎.海拔及旅游干扰对武功山山地草甸土壤渗透性的影响.生态学报,2018,(2).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201701090068  
海拔及旅游干扰对武功山山地草甸土壤渗透性的影响
Effects of elevation and tourism disturbance on meadow soil infiltration in Wugong Mountain
投稿时间:2017-01-09  修订日期:2017-08-27
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201701090068
关键词海拔  旅游干扰  草甸  渗透性  武功山
Key Wordselevation  tourisms disturbance  meadow  infiltration  Wugong mountain
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(31360177);国家自然科学基金项目(31560150);国际植物营养研究所合作项目(IPNI-JX29);江西省研究生 创新专项资助项目(YC2013-B029)
作者单位E-mail
李志 江西农业大学 lizhi876@163.com 
袁颖丹 南京林业大学林学院  
胡耀文 江西农业大学林学院  
孟文武 江西农业大学林学院  
张学玲 江西农业大学林学院  
郭晓敏 江西农业大学林学院  
张文元 江西农业大学林学院  
胡冬南 江西农业大学林学院  
牛德奎 江西农业大学 ndk2157@163.com 
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摘要:
土壤渗透能力是影响土壤侵蚀的重要因素之一,是反映土壤水源涵养及调节功能的重要指标,目前对于亚热带山地草甸土壤渗透性方面研究较少。江西武功山草甸是亚热带山地草甸的典型代表,以面积广和分布基准海拔低的特点,在华东植被垂直带谱中具有典型性和特殊性,但是人为干扰和过度旅游开发使武功山脆弱的山地草甸出现严重退化和破碎化态势。本文以武功山不同海拔及旅游干扰程度山地草甸土壤为研究对象,分别测定0-20cm和20-40cm土层土壤的初渗率、稳渗率、平均入渗率、前60分钟渗透总量、温度、湿度、容重、最大持水量、最小持水量、毛管持水量、pH、有机质、速效氮、速效磷、速效钾等理化指标,分析不同海拔及干扰程度草甸土壤渗透性特征,探讨影响土壤渗透性的相关因子,为亚热带地区退化草甸的修复及可持续经营提供参考。结果表明:(1)1600-1800m范围,随着海拔升高,土壤渗透性呈降低趋势,在1900m范围土壤渗透性又有所提高,各海拔土壤渗透性排序为1600m>1700m>1900m>1800m。(2)随着干扰程度增强,草甸土壤渗透性呈降低趋势,各干扰程度的土壤渗透性排序为无干扰>轻度干扰>中度干扰>重度干扰。(3)所有草甸分布区0-20cm土层的土壤渗透性均高于20-40cm土层,初渗率>平均入渗率>稳渗率。(4)通用经验模型更适合武功山草甸土壤水分入渗过程,Horton模型次之,Philip模型和Kostiakov模型拟合效果都比较差。(5)土壤渗透性与土壤湿度、毛管持水量呈显著正相关(P<0.05),与容重呈显著负相关(P<0.05),初渗率及平均入渗率与速效氮含量显著正相关(P<0.05),稳渗率、平均入渗率、渗透总量与速效钾含量呈显著正相关(P<0.05)。
Abstract:
Soil infiltration capacity is one of the most important factors affecting soil erosion. It is an important index to reflect the soil water conservation and regulation function. The Wugong mountain meadow is a typical representative of subtropical mountain meadow in Jiangxi province, which is typical and special in the vertical vegetation zone of East China. However, human disturbance and excessive tourism development have caused serious degradation and frag-mentation of fragile mountain meadow in Wugong Mountain. This study take the alpine meadow soil as the research object at different elevations and disturbance levels in Wugong Mountain, from the distribution of fringe meadow upwards to the top of the mountain, the range of every about 100m set to an altitudinal gradient, a total of 4 altitudinal gradient, namely 1600m, 1700m, 1800m, 1900m, in addition, on the basis of the vegetation coverage relatively de-creased percentage which caused by tourism disturbance, set up 4 kinds of disturbance treatments which include the no disturbance(Contrast check, vegetation coverage≥90%), the light disturbance(60% ≤vegetation coverage<90%), the medium disturbance(30%≤vegetation coverage<60%), the severe disturbance(vegetation coverage<30%) , some indexes include the soil initial infiltration rate, steady infiltration rate, average infiltration rate, total infiltration of the first 60 minutes, soil temperature, soil humidity, soil bulk density, maximum water-holding capacity, minimum water-holding capacity, capillary water holding capacity, pH, organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were measured in different soil layers of 0-20cm and 20-40cm, to analyze the characteristics of soil infiltration in different elevations and disturbance levels , to discuss the factors that affect the soil infiltration, and to provide references for the ecological restoration and sustainable management of degraded meadow in subtrop-ical zone. The results showed that: (1) with the increase of elevation, the soil infiltration showed a decreasing trend in the range of 1600-1800m, but also increased in the 1900m range, the size of the order was 1600m>1700m>1900m>1800m. (2) With the increase of disturbance levels to the meadow, the soil infiltration showed a decreasing trend, the size of the order was contrast check> light disturbance> medium disturbance>severe disturbance.(3)The soil infiltration of the upper layer (0-20cm) was higher than that of the lower layer (20-40cm), initial infiltration rate> average infiltration rate>steady infiltration rate. (4) The common empirical infiltration model is more suitable for the infiltration process of meadow soil moisture in Wugong Mountain, the Horton model is the second, and the Philip model and Kostiakov model are not suitable. (5) the soil infiltration and capillary water holding capacity showed a significantly positive correlation (P<0.05), was significantly negative correlated with soil bulk density (P<0.05), the available nitrogen content was significantly positive correlated with the initial infiltration rate and average infiltration rate (P<0.05), the available potassium content was significantly positive correlated with the steady infiltration rate, average infiltration rate and total infiltration(P<0.05).
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