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廖文婷,邓红兵,李若男,郑华.长江流域生态系统水文调节服务空间特征及影响因素:基于子流域尺度分析.生态学报,2018,(2).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201701080065  
长江流域生态系统水文调节服务空间特征及影响因素:基于子流域尺度分析
Spatial pattern of ecosystem hydrological regulating service and its impact factors in Yangtze River Basin: sub-watershed scale analysis
投稿时间:2017-01-08  修订日期:2017-09-02
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201701080065
关键词水文调节功能  变异系数法  生态系统服务  子流域尺度  长江流域
Key Wordswater regulation service  variation coefficient method  ecosystem services  sub-watershed scale  Yangtze River Basin
基金项目中国科学院科技服务网络计划项目(KFJ⁃EW⁃ZY⁃004)和国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0503401)
作者单位E-mail
廖文婷 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 wtliao_st@rcees.ac.cn 
邓红兵 中国科学院生态环境研究中心  
李若男 中国科学院生态环境研究中心  
郑华 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 zhenghua@rcees.ac.cn 
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摘要:
水文调节功能是流域生态系统所提供的重要服务之一,认识流域生态系统水文调节功能空间变异规律及其驱动力,对于流域生态系统保护与恢复、合理开发利用水资源具有重要意义。本文以洪涝灾害频发的长江流域为对象,运用变异系数法和多元统计方法,在子流域尺度上研究了长江流域生态系统水文调节功能空间特征及影响因素。结果表明,长江流域子流域生态系统水文调节功能呈现出明显的空间异质性,水利工程密集、自然植被覆盖率高达71%的金沙江和汉江水系各子流域水文调节功能最强,降雨与径流变异系数差为0.477;农田和人口密集的嘉陵江水系各子流域水文调节功能最弱,降雨与径流变异系数差为-0.474,其他子流域水文调节功能作用不明显。影响水文调节功能的主要因素是:水库库容、自然植被面积比例、农田面积比例、单位面积人口数,其中:水库库容和自然植被面积比例对水文调节功能具有正向促进作用,农田面积比例和单位面积人口对水文调节功能的作用正好相反。水库库容对子流域生态系统水文调节功能空间异质性的贡献最大(58.85%)。上述结果有助于科学认识长江流域生态系统水文调节功能空间分异规律,可为制定不同子流域生态保护与恢复措施、提升子流域生态系统水文调节功能提供科学依据。
Abstract:
Hydrological regulation service is one of the services provided by watershed ecosystems. It is important for watershed ecosystem conservation and restoration, and reasonable development of watershed water resource to identify the spatial pattern of watershed ecosystem hydrological regulating service and its driving forces. From the perspective of ecosystem and landscape scale, many scholars have carried out amounts of studies on the influence of different vegetation types and landscape pattern toward hydrological. Such study has played an important role in understanding the hydrological regulation service processes and mechanisms of the ecosystem. In the basin scale, hydrological regulation service was affected comprehensively by many factors including ecosystem characteristics, water conservancy facilities and human using water and so on. And these influences have scale effects. At this stage, due to the lack of a comprehensive observation of the systematic ecosystem in river scale, it is still difficult to evaluate the effect of ecosystem on regional hydrological process from a macro perspective. In addition, few researches have explored how to represent and know the ecosystem water regulation service in river scale as well as identify different influential factors that have different functions on the ecosystem of water regulation service in river scale. So a study on hydrological regulation service space variation regularity and its diving force is necessary. We take Yangtze River Basin where the flooding disaster happens frequently, as a case to study the spatial pattern of ecosystem hydrological regulating service and its impact factors by using variation coefficient method and multi-variable statistics methods. The results showed that in Yangtze River Basin ecosystem hydrological regulating service presented significant spatial heterogeneity at sub-watershed scale. The sub-watersheds in Jinshajiang and Hanjiang watersheds, where dense hydropower engineering located and the coverage of natural vegetation was 71%, had the highest hydrological regulating service. Its difference of variation coefficient between precipitation and runoff was 0.477. While the sub-watersheds with high population density and high proportion cropland in Jialingjiang watershed had the lowest hydrological regulating service and its difference of variation coefficient between precipitation and runoff was -0.474. The main impact factors of sub-watershed ecosystem hydrological services include reservoir volume, natural vegetation proportion, cropland proportion, population density. The reservoir volume and natural vegetation proportion have the positive impacts on sub-watershed ecosystem hydrological services, while the cropland proportion and population density have the negative impacts. The reservoir volume has the highest contribution to the heterogeneity of sub-watershed ecosystem hydrological service (58.85%). Our results can help to understand the spatial heterogeneity of sub-watershed ecosystem hydrological service in Yangtze River Basin, and can also provide scientific information for sub-water ecosystem conservation and restoration, as well as sub-watershed ecosystem hydrological regulating service improvement.
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