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刁元彬,刘红,袁兴中,张乔勇,熊森,黄亚洲,岳俊生,周李磊.水位变动影响下三峡库区汉丰湖鸟类群落及多样性.生态学报,2018,(4).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201701050043  
水位变动影响下三峡库区汉丰湖鸟类群落及多样性
Impact of water level fluctuation on avian community and diversity in Hanfeng Lake of the Three Gorges Reservoir
投稿时间:2017-01-05  修订日期:2017-10-04
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201701050043
关键词鸟类群落  多样性  水位变动  汉丰湖  三峡水库
Key WordsAvian community  Diversity  Water level fluctuation  Hanfeng Lake  Three Gorges Reservoir
基金项目国家科技重大专项 (No.2013ZX07104-004-05)
作者单位E-mail
刁元彬 重庆大学资源及环境科学学院 1536478647@qq.com 
刘红 重庆大学 hliu63@sina.com 
袁兴中 重庆大学资源及环境科学学院 xzyuan63@ aliyun. com 
张乔勇 重庆大学资源及环境科学学院  
熊森 重庆开州澎溪河湿地自然保护区管理局  
黄亚洲 重庆开州澎溪河湿地自然保护区管理局  
岳俊生 重庆大学资源及环境科学学院  
周李磊 重庆大学资源及环境科学学院  
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摘要:
受三峡水库夏落冬涨的水位调控方式影响,位于三峡库区腹心的重庆开州区汉丰湖形成22.5m水位落差。为了解汉丰湖鸟类群落结构与动态水位变化之间的响应关系,2015年3月-2016年2月对汉丰湖鸟类群落结构及多样性进行了调查。共记录鸟类97种,隶属12目32科,其中湿地鸟类49种,主要包括雁鸭类 (18种)、鸻鹬类 (13种)、鹭类 (7种) 及秧鸡类 (5种)。研究表明:受水位变化影响,鸟类群落结构及其多样性变化显著。夏季(8月)低水位期 (水位高程152.50m),鸟种数最高,为34种,Shannon-Wiener指数最高;杂食性、肉食性与食虫鸟是主要取食功能群;与夏季低水位期生境类型多样、消落带植物正处于生长旺盛期、食物资源丰富有关,是雀形目鸟类、鹭类、秧鸡类等适宜的栖息地。冬季(12月)汉丰湖高水位期(水位高程174.50m),Shannon-Wiener指数、均匀度指数均最低,杂食性鸟类是主要的取食功能群;但鸟类数量最高,与冬季高水位期水面开阔、生境类型单一有关,高水位期的大水面有利于雁鸭类集群越冬。冬季在退水期(水位高程170.01m),水位下降导致汉丰湖生境结构变化,越冬鸟类数量和物种丰度降低,空间分布格局也随之发生变化。鸟类是三峡水库生物多样性的重要组成部分,为保护和提升三峡水库生物多样性,恢复和营造鸟类栖息地,应针对繁殖鸟和越冬水鸟的功能需求进行生态设计。
Abstract:
Impacted by water level control (summer down, winter up) of the Three Gorges Reservoir, Hanfeng Lake, located at the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir, has 22.5 meters of water level fluctuation. In order to get to know the response relationship between the avian community structure and water level fluctuation, we conducted a survey on the avian community and diversity from March 2015 to February 2016. Ninety-seven bird species were recorded, belonging to 32 families of 12 orders, 47 of which were wetland birds, containing waterfowls (18 species), shorebirds (13 species), egrets (7 species) and rallidaes (5 species). The research showed that the avian community structure and diversity were effected significantly by water level fluctuation. During low water level period in summer (August, at the water level of 152.50m), avian richness (34 species) and Shannon-Wiener index were the highest, and the carnivore, omnivore and insectivore ones were main feeding functional groups; with diverse habitat types, plants being in vigorous growth period and abundant food resources, this period provided suitable habitats for passeriformes, egrets, rallidaes, and so on. During high water level period of Hanfeng Lake in winter (December, at the water level of 174.50m), avian Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou index were the lowest and the omnivore birds were main feeding functional group; however the number of birds was the largest due to open water with single habitat type of this period, and the large water surface was favorable for waterfowls to cluster overwinter. During the period of water release in winter (at the water level of 170.01m), due to the descending of water level resulted in a change in the habitat structure of Hanfeng Lake so that the number and richness of wintering birds were declining, whose spatial distribution patterns changed at the same time. Bird is an important part of the Three Gorges Reservoir’s biodiversity. To protect and promote the biodiversity of the Three Gorges Reservoir as well as restore and rebuild the avian habitats, we should conduct the ecological designs according to the functional needs of breeding birds and wintering waterbirds.
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