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何影,马淼.入侵植物意大利苍耳种子萌发对于环境因子的响应.生态学报,2018,(4).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201701120098  
入侵植物意大利苍耳种子萌发对于环境因子的响应
Responses of Seed Germination of the Invasive Plant Xanthium italicum to Environmental Factors
投稿时间:2017-01-12  修订日期:2017-09-23
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201701120098
关键词入侵植物  意大利苍耳  种子  萌发  耐受性
Key Wordsinvasive plant  Xanthium italicum  seed  germination  tolerance
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(31360047)
作者单位E-mail
何影 石河子大学生命科学学院 369919865@qq.com 
马淼 石河子大学生命科学学院 mamiaogg@126.com 
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摘要:
室内受控条件下,研究了意大利苍耳种子萌发阶段对环境因子(外界温度、光照、土壤湿度、土壤盐分以及土壤酸碱度)的响应。结果表明:意大利苍耳对各环境因子都有较宽泛的耐受幅度,10—35℃条件下均有种子萌发,而最适宜温度为25℃。其种子萌发阶段对光照没有严格需求,光照和黑暗条件下的萌发率均超过了93%。意大利苍耳表现出了极强的土壤水分耐受性,在相对湿度为30%—100%的土壤环境中,均有超过70%的种子可以正常萌发。其种子萌发率随土壤盐分浓度的升高呈下降趋势,但在280mmol/L的土壤NaCl环境中,仍有1/3的种子可以萌发。其种子对土壤酸碱度表现出较强的耐受性,在pH值是4—10的土壤环境中,种子萌发率均高达90%以上。意大利苍耳在种子萌发阶段对温度、光照、土壤水分、盐分及土壤酸碱度均表现出了极强的耐受性,说明无论是温凉的高原山区,还是炎热的盆地沙漠;无论是开阔地,还是郁闭的林下、田间;无论是干旱的荒漠,还是湿润的河谷湿地;也无论是甜土,还是盐碱地都是意大利苍耳种子萌发的适宜生境。鉴于其宜生生境的广谱性和其生态危害的严重性,建议在所有的生境类型中对意大利苍耳进行全方位的严格监控,一经发现须立即铲除。
Abstract:
We studied the responses of Xanthium italicum seed germination to the environmental factors: temperature, light, soil moisture, soil salinity, and soil pH. Our results showed that X. italicum seeds were highly tolerant to environmental fluctuations. The seeds germinated at 10°C to 35°C with 25°C being the optimal temperature. The germination percentage was higher than 93% under both light and dark conditions, suggesting that light was not strictly required at the germination stage of X. italicum. Many seeds germinated at 30–100% relative soil humidity, suggesting that X. italicum seeds also had a strong tolerance to soil moisture. The germination percentage decreased with the increase of soil salinity. However, even with a high salinity of 280mmol/L NaCl, one-third of the seeds still germinated. Most seeds were able to germinate in a wide range of soil pH values, and the germination percentage was above 90% with soil pH 4–10. These results showed that X. italicum had strong adaptability to temperature, light, soil moisture, soil salinity and soil pH in the germination stage. Our results suggested that X. italicum seeds can germinate energetically in a wide variety of drastically different habitats such as frigid high-altitude mountains, hot basin desert, open terrain, forest canopy, arid desert, humid river valley, neutral soil and alkali soil. Considering this species is a serious ecological hazard and the universality of its suitable habitats, we recommend a strict monitoring for X. italicum in all habitat types and eradicating this alien plant immediately when it is found.
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