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李娜,赵玉超,王仁杰,沈敏,李玉全.高盐胁迫对凡纳滨对虾消化及免疫相关酶活力的影响.生态学报,2018,(4).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201701050045  
高盐胁迫对凡纳滨对虾消化及免疫相关酶活力的影响
Effects of High Salinity on Digestive Enzymes and Immunity-related Enzymes of Litopenaeus vannamei
投稿时间:2017-01-05  修订日期:2017-09-21
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201701050045
关键词凡纳滨对虾  高盐  消化酶  免疫相关酶
Key WordsLitopenaeus vannamei  high salinity  digestive enzymes  immunity-related enzymes
基金项目山东省现代农业产业技术体系虾蟹类创新团队(SDAIT⁃15⁃011);国家自然科学基金项目(31101916);青岛市科技成果转化引导计划 (14⁃2⁃4⁃87⁃jch)
作者单位E-mail
李娜 青岛农业大学海洋科学与工程学院 1107765137@qq.com 
赵玉超 青岛农业大学海洋科学与工程学院  
王仁杰 青岛农业大学海洋科学与工程学院  
沈敏 青岛农业大学海洋科学与工程学院  
李玉全 青岛农业大学海洋科学与工程学院 jiangfangqian@163.com 
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摘要:
为探讨高盐对凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)消化及免疫相关酶活力的影响,实验设置了30、40、50、60共4个盐度梯度。对虾体长7.84±0.68cm,养殖密度333尾/m3,每个梯度设3个平行,实验周期30d。取血淋巴、肌肉、肝胰腺等组织,检测其超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)和酸性磷酸酶(ACP)及蛋白酶、脂肪酶、淀粉酶活力。结果表明,盐度显著影响凡纳滨对虾肝胰脏中胃蛋白酶、脂肪酶、淀粉酶的活性(P<0.05);随着盐度增加,消化相关酶活性均不断下降,处理间差异显著(P<0.05);盐度对凡纳滨对虾不同组织的免疫指标也存在一定影响,表现为随着盐度升高,血淋巴中,AKP活性逐渐升高,ACP、CAT和SOD活性均表现为先升高后降低;肌肉中,AKP、ACP和SOD活性呈现先升高后降低的变化趋势;肝胰脏中,AKP呈现先降低后升高再降低的变化趋势,ACP活性高盐处理间差异不显著(P>0.05),CAT活性先降低后升高,SOD活性盐度40后逐渐降低。结果说明,高盐显著影响凡纳滨对虾的消化及免疫相关酶活力,且盐度对不同组织中免疫酶活力影响存在一定的组织特异性,50以上的高盐胁迫对消化和免疫相关酶活力的影响尤为显著。
Abstract:
Litopenaeus vannamei is native to the South Pacific coastal waters and considered as one of the important euryhaline aquaculture shrimps across the world. Because of its strong disease resistance, fast growth, being suitable for high-density cultivation, and other excellent biological culture characteristics, L. vannamei has become one of the three aquaculture shrimps that have the greatest development potentials around the world. Salinity is one of the most important and changeable water quality factors affecting the physiology of aquatic organisms. Salinity variation may cause a variety of physiological responses, such as plasma enhanced stress-related hormones, stimulation of energy metabolism, and disruption of electrolyte equilibrium. Consequently, marine organisms have developed various survival mechanisms against salinity variation. For example, crustaceans adjust osmolarity and maintain an intra-corporal stable state by varying related enzyme activities. The immune-enzyme activities of crustaceans reflects that the body plays important roles in disease resistance and health maintenance. In addition, the digestive enzyme activities directly reflects the ability of the body to digest and absorb nutrients, which affects the ability of body survival and growth. Accordingly, there are few studies about the influence of high salinity on the immune and digestive index of L. vannamei in the past. There are still a lot of high-salt waters in the coastal or the northwest regions of China, which can be made full use of by developing the cultivation of L. vannamei. Through analyzing the effects of high salt stress on the activities of digestive and immune related enzymes in L. vannamei’s, it can enrich the theory of prawn stress biology, and provide theoretical reference for further cultivation of high salt prawns. In this regard, this study investigated the effects of salinity on digestive and immunity-related enzymes of L. vannamei. Four salinity levels (30, 40, 50, and 60) were designed. Shrimp with initial body length of (7.84±0.68) cm were used, stocking density was 333 shrimps per m3, with 3 replicates per group, and experimental period was 30 days. The activity of immunity-related enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), alkaline phosphate (AKP), acidic phosphate (ACP) and digestive enzymes in different tissues (hemolymph, muscle and hepatopancreas) were investigated. The results showed that salinity influenced the activity of pepsin, lipase and amysale in hepatopancreas. CAT activity decreased with salinity increasing (P<0.05). With the increaseed salinity, AKP activity increased, while ACP, CAT and SOD activities presented “increase-decrease” change trend in hemolymph; AKP, CAT and SOD activities showed “increase- decrease” change trend in muscle; AKP activity showed “increase- decrease” change trend, but the differences were not significant between ACP activities (P>0.05), while CAT activity presented “decrease- increase” change trend, and SOD activity decreased after the salinity of 40 in hepatopancreas. Therefore, significant changes were observed on the activities of digestive and immunity-related enzymes among tissues and salinities. Especially, the dramatically significant effect of the salinity on the activity of digestive enzymes and immunity-related enzymes was detected at high salinity level (above 50).
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