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张晴晴,卢增斌,李丽莉,关秀敏,欧阳芳,张永生,门兴元.区域性农田景观格局对棉蚜种群数量的生态学效应.生态学报,2018,(4).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201701040031  
区域性农田景观格局对棉蚜种群数量的生态学效应
Ecological effects of farmland landscape patterns on the populations of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, in North China
投稿时间:2017-01-04  修订日期:2017-09-21
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201701040031
关键词农田景观格局  景观因子指数  苗蚜  伏蚜  种群数量
Key Wordsfarmland landscape pattern  landscape factor index  cotton seedling aphids  summer aphids  population size
基金项目山东省自然基金(ZR2014YL019);山东省博士基金(ZR2016CB21);山东省农业科学院科技创新工程(CXGC2016A09)
作者单位E-mail
张晴晴 山东省农业科学院植物保护研究所 sybil321@163.com 
卢增斌 山东省农业科学院植物保护研究所  
李丽莉 山东省农业科学院植物保护研究所  
关秀敏 山东省农业厅植物保护总站  
欧阳芳 中国科学院动物研究所农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室  
张永生 湖南农业大学植物保护学院  
门兴元 山东省农业科学院植物保护研究所 menxy2000@hotmail.com 
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摘要:
农田景观格局的变化显著影响害虫的发生和危害,不同景观格局会对害虫的种群数量产生不同程度的影响,因而明确农田景观格局对害虫的生态学效应是控制害虫的重要前提之一。以山东省的棉花种植区为研究区域,选取14个典型的尽量临近不同土地覆盖类型的棉花生产县,通过卫星遥感影像和土地覆盖分类数据综合分析获得取样县/区的景观因子指数,并系统调查对应县/区的棉蚜种群数量。省级范围的大空间尺度下分析景观组成(landscape composition)、景观构成(landscape quantity)和景观结构(landscape configuration)等多因子分别与棉田中苗蚜和伏蚜种群的相关性。研究结果表明棉蚜的种群数量与景观格局有密切的关系,且棉蚜发生的两个时期苗蚜和伏蚜对景观因子的响应特征并不完全一致。苗蚜的种群数量与景观总面积、耕地的分形指数、县域范围的蔓延度和县域范围的回旋半径等呈显著正相关,与Simpson多样性指标呈显著负相关;伏蚜的种群数量与斑块丰富密度、居住工业交通的蔓延度等呈显著正相关。总之,苗蚜和伏蚜对景观的蔓延度(形)响应基本上是一致的,景观的破碎化程度越小,伏蚜和苗蚜发生越重。而苗蚜和伏蚜对景观多样性(质)的响应不一致,景观多样性高的农田景观不利于苗蚜的发生,对伏蚜的影响不显著;而丰富度密度有助于伏蚜的发生,却对苗蚜没有显著影响。这一结果显示了农业害虫的不同发生时期对农田景观格局响应的复杂性。
Abstract:
Changes in farmland landscape patterns can significantly affect the occurrence of and damage caused by pests. Different landscape patterns have different effects on pest populations, and thus elucidating the ecological effects of farmland landscape patterns on pests is an important factor in pest control. In this study, we chose the cotton planting district of Shandong Province in North China as our research area. We selected 14 sample counties or districts, which were as close to different land coverage types as possible. We determined population size during the primary period of cotton aphid damage. Aphids were on cotton seedlings in mid- to late May, whereas summer aphids peaked at approximately June 25. Landscape indices for each county or district were calculated from the distribution of land coverage types, which were obtained by comprehensively analyzing data from remote satellite sensing. Populations of cotton aphids were also surveyed in the corresponding counties or districts. We analyzed the correlation of multi-factors, including landscape composition, landscape quantity, and landscape configuration with cotton seedling aphids and summer aphids at the provincial level. The results showed that landscape patterns had a close association with both types of cotton aphids, which had significantly different population sizes in the same counties, whereas there were different response characteristics for cotton seedling aphids and summer aphids. Cotton seedling aphid populations has a significant positive association with total area, the fractal dimension index of farmland, contiguity index of the county, and the county’s radius of rotation, and were negatively correlated with Simpson’s diversity index. Summer aphid populations had a positive relationship with patch richness density and the contiguity index of residential industrial traffic. In general, responses of cotton seedling aphids and summer aphids to the contiguity index were similar, and there were more cotton seedling aphids and summer aphids in landscapes with less fragmentation. The responses of cotton seedling aphids to landscape diversity were different than those of summer aphids, and the diversity of the landscape benefited the summer aphid population, whereas it had a non-significant relationship with seedling aphids. Patch richness density could significantly affect cotton seedling aphid populations, but not summer aphids. These results indicated the complexity of the responses of insect pests at different stages to landscape patterns. Therefore, in regions with a higher quantity of cotton aphids, we can control the population quantity of cotton aphids by reducing wintering sites, decreasing the contiguity index of residential industrial traffic, and increasing Simpson’s diversity index according to the occurrence of cotton seedling aphids and summer aphids. Furthermore, we could form a regional comprehensive strategy for the control of cotton aphids by combining other biological and chemical control methods. As such, this is the first report, to our knowledge, that demonstrated that the same species occurring at different stages could have different responses to landscape patterns, which may be caused by different quality and quantity of food resources, different temperature and humidity, or other environmental conditions. We have provided theoretical and practical foundations to support the regional control of cotton aphids.
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