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卢训令,梁国付,汤茜,丁圣彦.农业景观非农生境植物多样性及其影响因素研究.生态学报,2018,(5).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201701240196  
农业景观非农生境植物多样性及其影响因素研究
Factors influencing plant diversity of non-agricultural habitats in agricultural landscapes
投稿时间:2017-01-24  修订日期:2017-10-16
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201701240196
关键词植物多样性  加性分配  景观异质性  群落特征  农业景观
Key Wordsplant diversity  additive partitioning  landscape heterogeneity  community characteristics  agricultural landscape
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(31600374,41371195),河南省教育厅科学技术研究重点项目(16A180022),河南省博士后科研资助 (2015049),河南省高校科技创新团队支持计划(16IRTSTHN012)共同资助
作者单位E-mail
卢训令 黄河中下游数字地理技术教育部重点实验室(河南大学)河南大学环境与规划学院河南大学生态科学与技术研究所 luxunling@henu.edu.cn 
梁国付 黄河中下游数字地理技术教育部重点实验室(河南大学)河南大学环境与规划学院  
汤茜 黄河中下游数字地理技术教育部重点实验室(河南大学)河南大学环境与规划学院河南大学生态科学与技术研究所  
丁圣彦 黄河中下游数字地理技术教育部重点实验室(河南大学)河南大学环境与规划学院 syding@henu.edu.cn 
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摘要:
农业景观是人类生活所需资料的最主要来源地和生物多样性保护的重要区域之一。黄河中下游地区是我国最重要的农业区之一,在区域农业景观中,非农生境中各群落植物物种多样性组成特征有何差异?在不同尺度上,景观异质性特征与生境特征对植物物种多样性特征有何影响?在黄河中下游典型区域布点,对区内主要非农生境(次生林、次生灌丛、人工林和农田边缘等)中的植物群落物种多样性进行调查。结果显示:(1)次生灌丛中的物种丰富度和多样性显著高于其它生境,而农田边缘也保育有较多的物种;(2)从物种组成来看,景观尺度上样点间物种多样性差异(β2)是所有生境中物种丰富度的最主要组成部分,而次生灌丛与次生林两类自然生境中小尺度(α和β1)物种丰富度的贡献相对较高。(3)景观异质性特征指标对物种多样性的影响主要体现在样方尺度上(α样方),而β和γ多样性与之的关系并不甚密切。表征生境特征的群落高度和盖度指标能更好的预测物种多样性的特征。研究发现,常用的表征景观异质性的指数在各尺度上对植物群落物种多样性特征的影响也并不显著,局地群落特征的影响更为直接和重要。在探讨景观异质性特征与生物多样性关系时,常用的多样性指数(Shannon多样性指数、均匀度指数和Simpson指数等)并不合适,而拆分后的物种丰富度会更有效。但景观异质性对生物多样性的影响也不容忽视,它的改变会是影响群落物种多样性及其组成结构的重要潜在因素,在更大尺度上景观异质性会通过对景观组成要素特征(生境组成和构型)的影响进而影响到区域植物物种丰富度的变化。
Abstract:
Agricultural landscape is an important source of human welfare, and an important area for biodiversity conservation. The middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River is among the most important agricultural areas in China. With the continuing expansion of agricultural land and the intensification of land-use, biodiversity of agricultural landscapes in this region continues to decline. Therefore, in this area, it is necessary to understand the difference in plant community composition and species diversity among non-agricultural habitats, and the effect of agricultural landscape heterogeneity and community structure on plant species diversity at different scales in the agricultural landscape. To address the issues mentioned above, we set up experimental plots in a representative region in Gongyi City of Henan province. A total of 910 quadrats (including 210 in secondary shrub habitat, 60 in secondary forest, 295 in artificial forest, and 345 in farmland edge) were investigated by using the Braun-Blanquet method. We found that: (1) the species richness and diversity of secondary shrub habitats were significantly higher than those in the other non-agricultural habitats. The farmland edge has more species than we expected. (2) Beta diversity (β2) was the main component of species richness in all habitats at the landscape scale. The contributions of alpha diversity at the quadrat and plot scale were small in all habitats, whereas that in two relatively more natural habitats (secondary shrub and secondary forest) were higher than that in relatively more artificial habitats (artificial forest and farmland edge). (3) The effect of landscape heterogeneity on species diversity was mainly evident at the quadrat scales (αquadrat), whereas beta and gamma diversity are not very closely related to landscape heterogeneity indices. However, height and coverage of shrub and herb layers, which can represent the habitat characteristics, might provide better predictions of plant species diversity. Overall, dynamics of landscape pattern would affect the local ecological factors more directly, unlike the characteristic indices of common community, such as Shannon diversity, evenness, and Simpson index. In summary, it is believed that at small scales, such as quadrat and plot scales, the effect of local environmental factors on plant community would be stronger and more direct than that at the landscape scale. However, the changes of regional landscape pattern, which can be indicated by the changes of local ecological factors, would potentially affect the plant community. At large scales, the dynamics of regional landscape pattern affect plant species richness and diversity by influencing landscape composition and configuration, which can become evident as changes of beta diversity. In general, the present study was expected to provide a better understanding of the status and contributions of plant diversity of non-agricultural habitats in the study area, and was important for explaining the effects of landscape pattern dynamics on plant community and the underlying mechanisms. Besides, our findings might provide a theoretical basis for the conservation and maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and might help in developing a sustainable agro-landscape for the study area in the future.
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