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古春凤,叶小齐,吴明,邵学新,焦盛武.草甘膦对入侵植物加拿大一枝黄花和伴生植物白茅光合特性的影响.生态学报,2018,(8).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201704140668  
草甘膦对入侵植物加拿大一枝黄花和伴生植物白茅光合特性的影响
Effects of glyphosate on photosynthetic characteristics of an invasive plant Solidago canadensis and indigenous plant Imperata cylindrica
投稿时间:2017-04-14  修订日期:2017-12-01
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201704140668
关键词除草剂  加拿大一枝黄花  白茅  生长  光合作用
Key Wordsherbicide  Solidago canadensis  Imperata cylindrica  growth  photosynthesis
基金项目中国林业科学研究院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金(CAFYBB2016SY010)、浙江省公益技术研究农业项目(2015C32011)、浙江省自然科学基金(LY17C030002)
作者单位E-mail
古春凤 中国林科院亚热带林业研究所杭州师范大学生命与环境科学学院 eiffeykoo@163.com 
叶小齐 中国林科院亚热带林业研究所  
吴明 中国林科院亚热带林业研究所 hangzhoubay@126.com 
邵学新 中国林科院亚热带林业研究所  
焦盛武 中国林科院亚热带林业研究所  
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摘要:
入侵植物加拿大一枝黄花(Solidago canadensis)给许多地区带来了较大危害,目前常采用化学防除法进行防除,但除草剂防治入侵植物的同时难免会影响土著植物的生长。为探讨草甘膦对入侵植物与本地植物光合特性的影响,以加拿大一枝黄花及其伴生种白茅(Imperata cylindrica)为研究对象,采用盆栽控制试验方法,研究不同浓度草甘膦处理21后单种、混种加拿大一枝黄花和白茅的生长特征及光响应过程。结果表明:1)草甘膦显著抑制两种植物的生长。随处理浓度升高,加拿大一枝黄花的株高增长量不断减小、叶片枯萎率不断增加;白茅的分蘖死亡率、叶片枯萎率不断升高。白茅对草甘膦较敏感,0.6mL/L浓度下白茅先失绿,1.2mL/L下其分蘖死亡率、叶片枯萎率均超50%;1.8mL/L下加拿大一枝黄花叶片枯萎率超50%。施药后与单种相比,混种加拿大一枝黄花株高增长略快、叶片枯萎率略低,混种白茅分蘖死亡率及叶片枯萎率均较低,但单、混种之间差异不显著。种间关系显著影响白茅的分蘖数。2)随处理浓度递增,加拿大一枝黄花和白茅叶片净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)均不断降低,白茅下降更快。两个物种胞间CO2浓度(Ci)的变化不同,随着浓度升高,单种加拿大一枝黄花Ci先下降而后上升,而混种时的Ci则不断下降;单、混种白茅Ci均上升。3)草甘膦显著影响加拿大一枝黄花和白茅最大净光合速率(Pnmax)、光饱和点(LSP)和光补偿点(LCP);对两个物种暗呼吸速率(Rd)的影响不显著,对加拿大一枝黄花表观量子效率(AQY)的影响同样不显著,但显著影响白茅AQY。种植方式显著影响两个物种Pnmax、LSP以及白茅Rd和AQY。0.6mL/L草甘膦对混种加拿大一枝黄花和白茅Pnmax的影响要大于对单种植株的影响,随处理浓度上升,对不同种植方式下两种植物Pnmax的影响趋近。与本地种白茅相比,入侵植物加拿大一枝黄花具有更高的光合速率和生长速率;草甘膦显著降低两个物种的生长和光合作用,白茅对草甘膦处理更敏感。
Abstract:
Solidago canadensis, which poses a serious threat to the regions it has invaded, causes considerable economic loss every year throughout the world. Different methods are used to control invasive species, among which chemical control is widely used. However, herbicide application may have a negative effect on the growth of neighboring native species. Recently, glyphosate, which has high efficiency and low toxicity, has become widely used both in China and abroad. In the present study, distinctive photosynthetic responses to glyphosate treatment in the invasive (S. canadensis) and native (Imperata cylindrica) plants were compared to investigate the impact of herbicide application on alien and indigenous plants. Plants were grown in monoculture and mixed culture for a 21-day period, and growth and photosynthetic characteristics were determined under four different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 0.6, 1.2, 1.8 mL/L). The results were as follows: (1) Glyphosate significantly inhibited the growth of S. canadensis and I. cylindrica (P<0.05). Cumulative growth in height and the number of green leaves of S. canadensis were apparently reduced with increasing concentration of glyphosate, while withering rate of tillers and leaves of I. cylindrica were obviously increased. Imperata cylindrica showed more sensitivity to glyphosate treatment than S. canadensis; it turned yellow from 0.6 mL/L glyphosate concentration, and the withering rate exceeded 50% with 1.2 mL/L glyphosate concentration, while the withering rate of the leaves of S. canadensis surpassed 50% level with 1.8 mL/L glyphosate concentration. Compared with the plants grown in monoculture, S. canadensis grown in mixture tended to have higher cumulative height and fewer withered leaves, while I. cylindrica grown in mixed culture grew better after herbicide treatments. There were no significant differences between different planting systems during the experimental period. Planting pattern had obvious impact on the tiller number of I. cylindrica (P<0.05). (2) Glyphosate significantly weakened the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of S. canadensis and I. cylindrica (P<0.05); the latter declined at a higher rate. The responses of intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) to glyphosate treatment differed between these two species. Ci of S. canadensis grown in monoculture first reduced and then increased, while Ci of S. canadensis grown in mixture decreased unceasingly; Ci of I. cylindrica grown both in monoculture and mixture increased with increasing glyphosate concentration. (3) Specifically, the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax) and light saturation point (LSP) of S. canadensis and I. cylindrica declined, while their light compensation point (LCP) increased with increasing glyphosate concentration; glyphosate had no obvious effect on dark respiration rate (Rd) of these two species and the apparent quantum yield (AQY) of S. canadensis, but showed obvious influence on AQY of I. cylindrica (P<0.05). Planting system had significant effects on the Pnmax and LSP of S. canadensis and I. cylindrica, as well as on the Rd and AQY of I. cylindrica. Glyphosate concentration of 0.6 mL/L had less effect on the Pnmax of plants grown in monoculture than those grown in mixed culture, while the effect of glyphosate on the Pnmax of both species grown in different planting systems became similar with increasing treatment concentration. Compared with the native plant I. cylindrica, the alien species S. canadensis had stronger photosynthesis and higher growth rate; glyphosate significantly weakened the photosynthesis of these two species, with I. cylindrica showing greater sensitivity to glyphosate treatment.
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