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孙宝娣,崔丽娟,李伟,康晓明,张曼胤.湿地生态系统服务价值评估的尺度转换研究进展.生态学报,2018,(8).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201704260764  
湿地生态系统服务价值评估的尺度转换研究进展
A review of scaling transform in wetland ecosystem service evaluation
投稿时间:2017-04-26  修订日期:2017-12-04
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201704260764
关键词湿地生态系统服务  价值评估  尺度转换  研究进展
Key Wordswetland ecosystem services  evaluation  scaling transform  research progress
基金项目林业公益性行业科研专项(201404305)
作者单位E-mail
孙宝娣 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 sunbaodi0927@126.com 
崔丽娟 湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室;中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 wetlands108@126.com 
李伟 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 wetlands207@163.com 
康晓明 湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室;中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 xmkang@ucas.ac.cn 
张曼胤 湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室;中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 cneco@126.com 
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摘要:
湿地生态系统服务取决于一定时间、空间尺度中的生态系统结构和生态过程,而人类从湿地生态系统获得利益的大小也与其时空尺度有着密切联系。同时,湿地生态系统服务价值评估的尺度转换问题也一直是整个湿地生态学研究中的热点和难点之一。本文首先在分析湿地生态系统服务空间尺度特征的基础上,提出了湿地生态系统服务价值评估研究中尺度转换的概念,即是指通过一个已经有的、与被估算湿地生态系统相似的更大空间范围的或更小空间范围的另一湿地生态系统的价值来估算该湿地生态系统的价值量的过程。其次,介绍了常用的空间尺度转换的方法,主要包括成果参照法和空间分析统计两种方法,成果参照法又包括数值直接外推法和调整函数参照法(Meta分析法)。最后,对目前尺度转换研究中存在问题进行总结,并对未来的研究进行了展望。
Abstract:
Wetland ecosystem services have attracted increasing attention over recent years from resource managers, researchers, and the wider public. This closer focus is partly because of the growing recognition by the ecosystem services that the wetland environment provides, including substance for different beneficiaries, habitat and refugial biotopes for different wetland organisms. Moreover, some wetlands located along bird migratory routes, such as the large tidal flats of the Chinese coastal wetlands, supply food for millions of birds traveling across East Asia and Australia. Thus, wetlands are not only important for human survival, in particular for those relying on local fish, but also for the survival of millions of migratory birds and other organisms. According to Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (also called MA), the classifications on the wetland ecosystem services were supplying services, regulating services, supporting services and culture services. Wetland ecosystem services depends on some related ecological structures and processes in different time or spatial scales, the size and the extent of the human benefits from the wetland ecosystem has close relationship with some time-space scale of ecological system, however, the original beneficiary and the ultimate beneficiary of wetlands often happened in different time scales and different space scales, so the “time-space difference” existed between the wetland ecosystem services provided by the wetlands and services the huaman accepted in the end. At present, based on market prices, the shadow project method, and the replacement cost method, the evaluation of typical wetland ecosystem services are mature for case studies. Some studies have also been based on direct extrapolation through the value per unit area for the analysis of services at larger spatial scales, such as for a province or river basin. However, no research has been undertaken into nondestructive evaluation and control of spatial structures. So the scaling transform in wetland ecosystem service evaluation has been one of hotspots and difficulties in the study of wetland ecology. The research on scaling transform in wetland ecosystem service evaluation mainly involved three aspects: (1) A clear definition of the ecological scaling transform; (2) Analyze the different regular in different spatial scales; (3) The technologies and methods of scaling transform on the ecological research. In this paper, based on the analysis of the characteristics and regulars for wetland ecosystem services in different spatial scales, we firstly put forward the concept of scale transform in wetland ecosystem service evaluation, which was considered as through the value another similar ecosystem (more space or less space range) which had already estimated to evaluate the value of the other wetland ecosystem. Secondly, we presented commonly used methods of scaling transform in wetland ecosystem service evaluation (focusing on space scaling-up transform), which mainly including Reference Method, SpatialAnalysis Method. Direct Extrapolation Method and Benefit Transfer (Meta analysis) Method included in the Reference Method. In the end, we summarized the problems existed in the present study, these five problems are as follows: (1) Applying the reference method directly to calculate the value of wetlands; (2) The precision problem on original datas in the study of the scaling transform; (3) The model parameter problem in the study of the scaling transform; (4) The lack of research on characteristical scale and measurement; (5) The uncertainty analysis of scaling transform. We have also discussed different perspectives for future research on scaling transform in wetland ecosystem service evaluation.
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