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徐骁骁,赵文阁,刘 鹏.环境温度对东北林蛙不同地理种群繁殖期体温和胚胎发育的影响.生态学报,2018,(8).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201706071041  
环境温度对东北林蛙不同地理种群繁殖期体温和胚胎发育的影响
Effect of environmental temperature on body temperature during reproductive period and embryonic development in different geographic populations of Rana dybowskii
投稿时间:2017-06-07  修订日期:2017-11-30
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201706071041
关键词东北林蛙  体温调节  发育时期  发育速度  地理变异
Key WordsRana dybowskii  thermoregulation  developmental stage  developmental speed  geographic variation
基金项目哈尔滨市科技创新人才研究专项资金项目(2014RFQXJ169); 黑龙江省自然科学基金项目(C2016035)
作者单位E-mail
徐骁骁 哈尔滨师范大学生命科学与技术学院 153531862@qq.com 
赵文阁 哈尔滨师范大学生命科学与技术学院  
刘 鹏 哈尔滨师范大学 liupeng111111@163.com 
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摘要:
全球气候变暖对两栖类的影响是生态学关注的热点问题。作为变温动物,两栖类能够从外界获取热量,并具有一定的体温调节能力。以东北林蛙(Rana dybowskii)作为实验对象,测量不同环境温度下伊春种群、白山种群和尚志种群繁殖期的体温和胚胎发育速度。结果表明:东北林蛙的体温和胚胎发育速度均与环境温度正相关;不同地理种群的选择体温、体温调节能力不同,由高到低依次为尚志种群、白山种群和伊春种群;尚志种群、白山种群和伊春种群完成胚胎发育的时间依次延长,且三者的差距随着胚胎发育的进行越来越明显;环境温度升高后,不同发育阶段完成的时间并不是等比例的减少,胚胎发育的第2阶段和第3阶段以及第4阶段的第21期(开口期)经历的时间显著缩短;与成体相比,胚胎发育过程更容易受到温度的影响,从而导致东北林蛙某些器官形态结构和功能的改变。
Abstract:
How global warming affects amphibians is a current hot topic because temperature is the most important and variable climatic factor that affects many biological processes and is strongly related with temporal variation. Amphibians are ectotherms, which means that they receive heat from external sources and can control their temperature through their bodies or behavior. The Dybowski''s frog (Rana dybowskii) is a cold-resistant species found in?Northeast Asia with an extensive geographic variation in life-history traits. In this paper, the specimens were taken from Yichun, Baishan, and Shangzhi to measure body temperature and embryonic development speed. The results showed that body temperature was positively correlated with environmental temperature, and that heat increased the rate of growth, while cold temperature slowed it. The species showed higher selected body temperature, stronger temperature regulation ability, and faster embryo development speed in the hot?environment than in the cold environment. There were significant differences among the three geographic populations of R. dybowskii in the selected body temperature. The crossing point temperature at which the linear regression equation intersects with isothermal line (y = x) was the lowest in the Yichun population (18.51°C for males and 21.74°C for females), and was the highest in the Shangzhi population (20.00°C for males and 23.06°C for females). The body temperature of the Yichun population was the lowest, while that of the Shangzhi population was the highest among the three populations under the low temperature conditions (8-22°C for males and 8-26°C for females). In contrast, body temperature of the Yichun population was the highest, while that of the Shangzhi population was the lowest under high temperature conditions (24-30°C for males and 28-30°C for females). Thermoregulation ability of the Shangzhi population was the strongest, followed by the Baishan population, and the Yichun population was the weakest among the three populations. The embryonic development time of the Shangzhi, Baishan, and Yichun populations increased successively and the gaps among the three populations were becoming increasingly obvious with the development of embryos. The development completion time of different stages was not reduced in proportion with the increasing of ambient temperature. The second and third stage of embryonic development, and the 21st phase (mouth open stage) of the fourth stage were significantly shortened. This indicates that different embryo development stages have different sensitivity to temperature, and that heating can accelerate the developmental rate during certain developmental periods of this species. Thus, tadpoles and developing frogs are more susceptible to temperature than adults. This may lead to changes in morphological structure and functions in some organs. In summary, body temperature and embryonic development are different among the three geographic populations of R. dybowskii, which is a type of adaptive evolution to the environment. The temperature rise has an effect on all populations under the background of global warming. We conclude that different geographic populations have different adaptation strategies to cope with the change of environmental temperature. This study provides a basis for the artificial breeding of amphibians and the adaptation mechanism to climate change in the future.
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