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侯西勇,张华,李东,侯婉,宋洋.渤海围填海发展趋势、环境与生态影响及政策建议.生态学报,2018,(9).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201706261145  
渤海围填海发展趋势、环境与生态影响及政策建议
Development trend, environmental and ecological impacts and policy recommendations of Bohai Sea reclamation
投稿时间:2017-06-26  修订日期:2017-12-14
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201706261145
关键词渤海  围填海  环境效益  监督管理  政策建议  生态恢复
Key WordsBohai Sea  sea reclamation  environmental impacts  supervision and management  policy suggestion  ecological restoration
基金项目中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA11020205),中国科学院重点部署项目(KZZD-EW-14),国家自然科学基金国际合作项目(No.31461143032)。
作者单位E-mail
侯西勇 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 xyhou@yic.ac.cn 
张华 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所 hzhang@yic.ac.cn 
李东 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所  
侯婉 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所  
宋洋 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所  
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摘要:
近年来,中国沿海处于快速工业化和城市化驱动下的新一轮大规模围填海阶段,环渤海围填海历史久、规模大,已成为我国围填海的重心区域。由于围填海和河口三角洲增长,1940s以来渤海面积萎缩了0.57 × 104 km2,萎缩速率大于82 km2/a,2000年以来萎缩速率更高达141 km2/a;渤海自然岸线的长度和比例也急剧下降,由1990年的1397 km 减少为2014年的561 km,占岸线总长度的比例由54.92%下降为16.18%。围填海导致多种危害,如:海洋潮波和水动力条件变化,近岸和近海沉积环境与水下地形变化,加剧近岸水环境与底泥环境污染,潮滩湿地面积减损与生态功能下降,底栖生物栖息地减损和群落破坏,侵占和破坏渔业资源“三场一通道”,加剧海岸带自然灾害风险、诱发经济社会系统风险,对产业和经济发展带来不利影响,等。在分析我国围填海监督管理现状和问题的基础上,提出政策建议:改革和优化围填海管理体制,建立陆海协调与联动机制,完善法律法规;严格执行生态红线制度,控制围填海规模与速度,推进和优化保护区建设;开展已围填区及其周边海域环境和生态的恢复与重建;强化已围填区新增土地资源的监管和集约优化利用;加强基础观测体系建设,大力促进科学研究的发展;促进公众、利益相关方及非政府组织的参与。
Abstract:
In recent years, a new round of large-scale reclamation activities, driven by the rapid industrialization and urbanization, have being carried out in China’s coastal areas. Bohai Sea, with a long history of extensive reclamation, has become an area with the most intensive reclamation activities in recent years. Due to sea reclamation and estuarine delta growth, the area of Bohai sea has shrunk by 0.57 × 104 km2 since 1940s, with an shrinking rate >82 km2/a and as high as 141 km2/a since 2000. The natural coastline of Bohai Sea decreased sharply from 1397 km in 1990 to 561 km in 2014 and the proportion decreased from 54.92% to 16.18%. The large-scale reclamation might cause a variety of hazards and decline of ecological functions, such as: ocean hydrodynamic changes, topographical and morphological changes near- and off-shore, coastal water and sediment pollution, tidal wetland damage, benthic habitat and community destruction, spawning and nursery ground degradation, coastal natural disaster and social system risk aggravation, industry and economy development decrease. On the basis of analyzing the status quo and problems of the management and policies of sea reclamation in China, some policies were put forward as follows: to reform and optimize the management system of reclamation, to establish land-sea coordination mechanism, to improve laws and regulations, to execute the ecological red line system strictly, to control the scale and speed of reclamation, to promote the construction of reserve area, to restore and reconstruct the ecological environment in reclamation area, to strengthen the supervision and intensive use of the new land resources, to construct the basic observation system, to promote the scientific research, to promote the participation of publics, stakeholders and non-government organizations.
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