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陈科屹,张会儒,雷相东.天然次生林蒙古栎种群空间格局.生态学报,2018,(10).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201707101243  
天然次生林蒙古栎种群空间格局
Spatial pattern of Quercus mongolica in natural secondary forest
投稿时间:2017-07-10  修订日期:2017-12-29
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201707101243
关键词天然次生林  蒙古栎  分布格局  关联性  空间自相关
Key Wordsnatural secondary forest  QuercusSmongolica  distribution pattern  association  spatial autocorrelation
基金项目国家“十三五”重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0504101)
作者单位E-mail
陈科屹 中国林业科学研究院资源信息研究所 lowrychen@sina.com 
张会儒 中国林业科学研究院资源信息研究所  
雷相东 中国林业科学研究院资源信息研究所  
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摘要:
以蒙古栎天然次生林中的蒙古栎(Quercus mongolica)种群为研究对象,在吉林省汪清林业局塔子沟林场设置了2块1hm2群落组成和结构存在差异的样地(样地A、样地B)。采用相邻网格调查法将每块样地划分为 100 个10m×10m的调查单元,精确定位单元内每株林木的空间坐标(X,Y),调查所有胸径(DBH)≥1cm的林木基本信息。采用径阶替代年龄的方法,将蒙古栎划分为4个不同的生长阶段:Ⅰ龄级(1cm≤DBH<10cm),Ⅱ龄级(10cm≤DBH<20cm),Ⅲ龄级(20cm≤DBH<30cm),Ⅳ龄级(DBH≥30cm)。运用单变量、双变量成对相关函数、标记相关函数、标记变异函数,分析了不同群落中蒙古栎种群在不同空间尺度上的分布格局。结果显示:(1)两块样地中蒙古栎在大尺度上均呈随机分布,聚集分布主要集中在中小尺度,这主要是由Ⅰ、Ⅱ龄级的蒙古栎在中小尺度上的强度聚集所致,两块样地均未出现均匀分布的格局;样地A中蒙古栎聚集的尺度和强度均明显大于样地B中蒙古栎的聚集;(2)样地A中Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ龄级的蒙古栎之间在中小尺度上呈正关联,高龄级与低龄级之间则呈负关联,尤其是Ⅳ龄级与Ⅰ、Ⅱ龄级之间;而样地B中几乎未出现负关联的格局,各龄级之间以无关联为主,伴随以小尺度和低强度的正关联;(3)样地A中蒙古栎的空间自相关性较强,尤其体现在林木胸径方面;相比之下,样地B中胸径和树高的空间自相关得以减弱。上述结果表明,研究的空间尺度大小、物种的生长阶段、群落的发育程度均会给蒙古栎种群的空间分布格局造成影响。该研究有助于深入了解蒙古栎及蒙古栎次生林的现状、生长特性和发展趋势,可为东北林区大面积的蒙古栎天然次生林的可持续经营提供参考。
Abstract:
Spatial signatures often reveal ecological processes, and spatial pattern analysis is an important method for studying population characteristics, interspecies relationships, and the relationships between population and the environment. Due to the distinctive characteristics and the current situation of Quercus mongolica in China, it is necessary to investigate the ecological processes in Q. mongolica stands. To realize the status and development tendency of the Q. mongolica population in the Q. mongolica natural secondary forest, its spatial patterns were studied based on two permanent sample plots (plot A and plot B) with different compositions and structures (i.e.,different coenotypes) over an area of 1 hm2(100 m × 100 m) in Tazigou Forest Farm of Wangqing Forestry Bureau, Jilin province. The essential features, which include species identity, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, clear bole height, crown breadth, and coordinate information of each tree (DBH ≥1), of the two plots were surveyed by the adjacent grid method (10 m × 10 m). Using the method of diameter class (instead of the age), Q. mongolica was divided into four different growth stages: stage I(1 cm ≤DBH< 10 cm), stage II(10 cm ≤DBH< 20 cm), stage III (20 cm ≤DBH< 30 cm), stage IV(DBH ≥30 cm). In accordance with the spatial point pattern theory, univariate pair-correlation function g1(r), bivariate pair-correlation function g12(r), mark correlation function kmm(r), and mark variogram function γ(r) were adopted to evaluate the spatial patterns of Q. mongolica in different communities at various scales. The results showed that (1) All Q. mongolica populations in the two plots showed random spatial distribution at large scales, and the aggregated distribution was mainly concentrated at medium and small scales. The aggregated distribution at stages I and II at medium and small scales was the primary cause for the above phenomenon. Uniform distribution was not observed in the two plots at all scales. The aggregated distribution of Q. mongolica in plot A is stronger than that in plot B. (2) The spatial associations of Q. mongolica among the stages I, II, and III in plot A are positive at medium and small scales. The spatial associations between older age and younger age classes were negative, especially between the stages IV, I, and II. In plot B, however, negative spatial association was scarcely observed at all scales. The relationships between different stages were mostly uncorrelated with positive spatial association at small scale and low intensity. (3) The spatial autocorrelation of plot A is stronger than that of plot B, and the conspicuous expression mainly appears at DBH. The spatial autocorrelation of plot B for DBH and height is weakened to some extent compared to that of plot A. These results demonstrated that the spatial patterns of Q. mongolica are affected by the space scale of the sample plot, the growth stage of species, and the developmental stage of the community. This helps us to understand the current situation, growth characteristics, and developmental tendency of Q. mongolica population and its natural secondary forest, and can provide an important reference for sustainable forest management and ecosystem conservation in the Q. mongolica natural secondary forest area of northeast China.
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