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蔺琛,龚明昊,刘洋,潘旭,朴正吉.基于优势种的生物多样性保护价值空间异质性研究.生态学报,2018,(13).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201707051214  
基于优势种的生物多样性保护价值空间异质性研究
The spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity value based on dominant species
投稿时间:2017-07-05  修订日期:2018-02-04
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201707051214
关键词生物多样性价值  生态服务 空间格局  优势种
Key Wordsbiodiversity value  ecological service  spatial pattern  dominant species
基金项目长白山管委会项目“长白山生态红线划定”
作者单位E-mail
蔺琛 国家林业局调查规划设计院 3521881@qq.com 
龚明昊 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所 gongmh2005@hotmail.com 
刘洋 国家林业局调查规划设计院  
潘旭 中国林业科学研究院湿地研究所,湿地生态功能与恢复北京市重点实验室  
朴正吉 长白山科学研究院 长白山生物资源与生物多样性联合重点实验室  
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摘要:
生物多样性保护是生态系统的主导功能之一,对生物多样性空间异质性的研究有助于准确认识区域的保护价值及重要性,目前可借鉴的生物多样性价值空间异质性评价方法和经验偏少。本研究以长白山生态功能区核心区为研究区域,基于生物多样性丰富区域优势物种的分布及其环境因子,通过Maxent评估生物多样性保护价值,将研究区域分为生物多样性保护高价值区、中价值区和一般价值区。研究表明:研究区域内生物多样性保护高价值区域占总面积的42.9%、主要分布于长白山保护区内,保护区内的高价值斑块也较保护区外完整、面积大;研究区域内生物多样性高价值斑块的平均面积和最大斑块面积远高于中价值区和一般价值区,其斑块景观较完整、破碎化水平相对较低,是研究区域生物多样性保护价值和生态系统稳定性的重要基础。植被是对研究区域生物多样性影响最大的环境因子,其次是土层厚度和海拔。从生态系统完整性和过程连续性保护的需要,保护区南部缓冲区可考虑调整为核心区,保护区外还有较大面积的生物多样性高价值和中价值区域也应纳入保护区进行保护;长白山西坡是生物多样性高价值斑块最破碎的区域,应在未来的保护工作中予以特别关注。本研究表明关联优势种空间分布及环境因子是认识生物多样性价值及空间异质性的有效手段,本研究方法可为生态红线划定和国家公园设计提供参考。
Abstract:
As one of the dominant functions in ecosystem, understanding the spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity can help to uncover the conservation value and importance in a given area. However, there are few available methods or less experience as references to assess the spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity value so far. We chose the kernel area of Changbaishan ecological function zone as the study site, and constructed the assessment model of biodiversity value based on the dominant species in an area with high richness of species and environmental variable using Maxent. With aggregation of dominant species and results of biodiversity assessment, we partitioned the study area as three types of areas with high, medium and normal biodiversity value. Our study showed that the area with high biodiversity value occupied 42.9% of the total study area mainly locating within the Changbaishanshan reserve, the areas with high and normal biodiversity values comprised the main range of Changbaishan reserve. The mean size and the largest size of patches of high biodiversity value are much larger than those of the medium and normal value, reflecting the integrity and low level of fragmentation in landscape pattern, and made a competent function and robust stability of ecosystem and biodiversity value in our study. Totally, the patches of high biodiversity value in the reserve was also larger and more integrated than those outside the reserve, and the order of the mean size with sub-function area of the reserve was as follow: kernel area> buffer area > experimental area. Among all the environmental factors, vegetation was the most important factor to the value of biodiversity, followed by the depth of soil and elevation in study area. Based on the needs of protection on the integrity of ecosystem and the connectivity of ecoprocess, the south buffer zone of reserve should be incorporated into kernel areas, the large area with high and medium value of biodiversity should be included the area of reserve for better conservation, the western of Changbai Mountain was the most fragmented area of high diversity values and needed to be paid more attention in future for conservation and management. Our study also indicated that it is an effective way to examine the spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity by associating the presence of dominant species with environmental variables, and our method also can be in the biodiversity study in other ecological function area, the delineating of ecological conservation redline and the designing of national parks.
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