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卢萍,戴年华,张美文,张国华,张琛,刘卓荣.鄱阳湖区黄毛鼠(Rattus losea)的繁殖生态.生态学报,2018,(14).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201708021384  
鄱阳湖区黄毛鼠(Rattus losea)的繁殖生态
Reproductive ecology of Rattus losea populations in the Poyang Lake region
投稿时间:2017-08-02  修订日期:2018-02-08
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201708021384
关键词黄毛鼠  繁殖生态  鄱阳湖区
Key WordsRattus losea  reproductive ecology  Poyang Lake region
基金项目:江西省自然科学基金项目(20151BAB204010);江西省科技计划项目(20151BBG70065);国家自然科学基金项目(41561056);江西省 科学院项目(2014⁃YYB⁃05;2014⁃XTPH1⁃05)
作者单位E-mail
卢萍 江西省科学院生物资源研究所 luping_edu@sina.com 
戴年华 江西省科学院生物资源研究所 dainianhua@jxas.ac.cn 
张美文 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所  
张国华 江西省科学院生物资源研究所  
张琛 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所  
刘卓荣 江西省科学院生物资源研究所  
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摘要:
2015—2016年对鄱阳湖区的滨湖农田和湖滩草洲的黄毛鼠种群繁殖进行了研究。研究结果表明,其种群雌雄比为81.36%,在不同的季节、生境和年龄组之间都有一定的差别,雌雄比在夏季较低,春、秋、冬季的雌雄比都超过了50.00%,其中冬季的达到了133.33%。农田和湖滩草洲上的雌雄比也都超过了50.00%,且农田的高于湖滩草洲的。在不同的年龄组之间,雌雄比最高的为幼体组140.00%,其次为成体90.20%。所有雌鼠全年的怀孕率为45.26%,平均胎仔数为6.74只,繁殖指数为1.36。夏和秋季的怀孕率都较高,冬季未捕获到怀孕鼠,仅捕获到有怀孕经历(有宫斑)的雌鼠。从繁殖指数看,春、秋季维持高峰水平,且秋峰高于春峰。雌性黄毛鼠总的参产率为71.58%,各季节间变化呈现单峰曲线,夏季最高,其次是秋季和春季,冬季停止怀孕。随着年龄的增长,平均胎仔数有明显增加的趋势,成体组胎仔数最高,而繁殖指数也是以成体组最高,说明成体组是种群中繁殖的主体。雄性黄毛鼠的睾丸下降率全年总计为81.36%,分四季平均为79.64%,春、夏、秋季都维持在较高水平,冬季最低。下位睾丸的大小季节性差异极显著(P<0.01),春季与冬季相比,有显著性差异,说明开春后,雄性黄毛鼠在生殖潜能上已有明显变化。这些特征与雌鼠的繁殖高峰基本吻合。说明黄毛鼠主要在春、夏、秋季繁殖,繁殖盛期在春、秋季。从不同的年龄组看,幼体组个体不参与繁殖,亚成体组个体开始参与繁殖,繁殖主体是成体组个体。
Abstract:
Rattus losea individuals were collected from beaches and farmland of the Poyang Lake region in 2015 to 2016. A total of 175 specimens were captured, and 171 animals were autopsied to determine their reproductive condition. Position and size of testes were noted in males. For females, the reproductive tract was examined for the tubal condition of the uterus, number and size of embryos, and placental scars. Specimens were assigned to three age classes based on carcass weight: juvenile (carcass weight ≤ 36 g), sub-adult (carcass weight from 36 to 55 g), and adult (carcass weight > 55 g). Males with testes that had dropped into the scrota and females for which the uterus was tubal were considered sexually mature. Females with embryos or visible uterine scars were considered reproductive animals. The total sex ratio (F/M) was 81.36%, but it varied in different seasons and among different age classes. The proportion of males was higher than that of females, except during summer, and the female–male ratio in spring, autumn, and winter was greater than 50.00%, reaching 133.33% in winter. The female–male ratio was also more than 50% in farmland and beaches, although it was higher in farmland. Among the different age groups, the ratio was the highest in juveniles (140.00%), followed by that of adults (90.20%). The total percentage of pregnancy in captured females was 45.26%. The average number of embryos in a litter was 6.74, and the index of reproduction for all females was 1.36. Rates of pregnancy were higher in summer and autumn, with no breeding in winter. The index of reproduction was higher in spring and autumn, and exhibited an obvious bimodal characteristic, of which the major peak was in autumn. It was shown that spring and autumn were the peak breeding periods for females. The total rate of reproductive in females was 71.58%. Seasonal variation showed a single peak curve, which was the highest in summer, followed by autumn and spring, with no pregnant females in winter. With increasing age, the average number of embryos in a litter increased significantly. Litter size and the reproductive index were highest in the adult group. The main group to reproduce was the adult class. For males, the rate of testes in scrota for all males was 81.36%, and the four seasons averaged 79.64%. Almost all captured males had scrotal testes in spring, summer, and autumn, whereas the rate of scrotal testes in winter (25.93%) was lower. The size of testes in scrota of mature males changed significantly among seasons (P < 0.01), and there was a significant difference between spring and winter. These data showed that the reproductive potential of males exhibited obvious changes after spring. Reproductive traits of males were similar to those of females by season and age class. As such, it could be concluded that the rat breeds during the spring to autumn, and stops breeding in winter. The most favorable breeding seasons of this species are spring and autumn, and the adult group is the main reproductive class.
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