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孙然好,李卓,陈利顶.中国生态区划研究展望: 从格局、功能到服务.生态学报,2018,(15).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201711172046  
中国生态区划研究展望: 从格局、功能到服务
Review of ecological regionalization and classification in China: ecological patterns, functions, and ecosystem services
投稿时间:2017-11-17  修订日期:2018-03-07
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201711172046
关键词生态类型  生态地理  生态区划  生态功能  生态服务
Key Wordsecological type  ecological geography  ecological regionalization  ecological function  ecosystem servces
基金项目科技基础性工作专项(2013FY112800)
作者单位E-mail
孙然好 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 rhsun@rcees.ac.cn 
李卓 中国科学院生态环境研究中心  
陈利顶 中国科学院生态环境研究中心  
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摘要:
在总结国内外研究进展基础上,系统梳理了中国现有的生态区划方案,总结出生态特征和类型区划、生态地理和格局区划、生态功能和服务区划三大类,分别对每个区划的指标、技术、方案、特点进行了归纳,并提出了各自存在的问题。现有研究缺少面向服务供需的生态系统区划,生态制图和更新的标准化技术也存在不足。为此,提出明确不同生态区划的科学或管理目标、强调人类需求对于生态系统服务的影响、重视全球气候变化对生态系统的现实作用和未来影响、加强现代制图技术在生态区划的作用、整合现有多原则和多目标的生态分区方案等五个方面的建议。
Abstract:
Ecological regionalization is the basis for understanding the spatial heterogeneity of ecological types, structures, processes, functions, and ecosystem services. In this study, we investigated the schemes of ecological regionalization in China. Three types of ecological regionalization were summarized according to systematic reference review: ecological features and types, ecological geography and pattern, and ecological function and ecosystem services. These regionalization schemes have different focuses on evaluating differences and characteristics of an ecosystem, and identifying countermeasures for restoring a degraded ecosystem. We generalized the objectivities, indices, methods, and characteristics for each ecological regionalization scheme. The advantages and shortcomings were also provided by comparing different schemes. Generally, current studies lack regionalization schemes which focus on ecosystem services, particularly for the supply, demand, and flow of ecosystem services. On the other hand, the cartography of ecological regionalization is short of the generating and updating based on remote sensing and big data. Finally, we proposed four potential improvements for ecological regionalization for future studies. First, ecological regionalization should focus on a specific object, such as for scientific theories or management strategies. Second, we need to quantify human demand in the ecosystem service assessment. The tradeoff between supply and demand of ecosystem services should be the basis of ecosystem service mapping. Third, ecological regionalization would be improved by combining the ecosystem services and global change scenarios. The mapping of ecosystem services based on climatic backgrounds and scenarios may be helpful for guiding the adaptation to climate change. Four, modern technologies are important tools in the improvement of ecological regionalization. We need to develop a standard procedure for data collection, processing, storage, and mapping during ecological regionalization. Lastly, current regionalization schemes are useful to ecosystem management even if they are not designated as ecoregions. We need to integrate related regionalization schemes within the framework of ecosystem management and protection.
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