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吴晓敏,郝瑞娟,王丽卿,潘宏博.景观水体周丛生纤毛虫群落结构及其与环境因子的关系.生态学报,2018,(15).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201709281752  
景观水体周丛生纤毛虫群落结构及其与环境因子的关系
Community structure of periphytic ciliates in scenic water and its relationship with environmental factors
投稿时间:2017-09-28  修订日期:2018-03-12
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201709281752
关键词指示生物  群落结构  环境因子  载玻片法  周丛生纤毛虫  景观水体
Key Wordsbioindicator  community structure  environmental factor  glass slide method  periphytic ciliate  scenic water
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(31772477)
作者单位E-mail
吴晓敏 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心(上海海洋大学) aquawuxm@163.com 
郝瑞娟 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心(上海海洋大学) ruijuanhao@163.com 
王丽卿 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心(上海海洋大学) lqwang@shou.edu.cn 
潘宏博 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心(上海海洋大学) panhongbobio@sina.com 
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摘要:
为了解载玻片法获取的周丛生纤毛虫群落可否用于监测景观水体,于2015年利用载玻片采样法对上海东南角的一处景观水体的周丛生纤毛虫的群落结构进行了周年调查,并对其与环境因子之间的相关性进行了研究。共检出12目51种周丛生纤毛虫。周丛生纤毛虫的年平均密度为127.29 个/cm2,2月密度最低,为24.27 个/cm2,5月密度最高,为248.57 个/cm2;其群落结构应对水体环境的变化呈现显著的季节性变动。多元统计分析表明,总磷浓度和水温(T)均是影响周丛生纤毛虫群落结构的主要环境因子。作为周丛生纤毛虫最主要的类群,缘毛目纤毛虫的密度与透明度(SD)和电导率(Spc)呈显著正相关,与T呈极显著正相关;丁丁目、毛口目和侧口目纤毛虫的密度与SD呈显著负相关,其中丁丁目纤毛虫的密度与T呈极显著负相关;此外,丁丁目纤毛虫的密度与总氮(TN)浓度呈极显著正相关。冗余分析显示,优势种钟形钟虫、钟虫sp. 2、聚缩虫sp. 1、亨氏累枝虫、沟钟虫和螅状独缩虫的密度与环境因子具有较好相关性。研究表明,载玻片法采集的周丛生纤毛虫能很好的反映水质变化,该方法可以作为景观水体水质监测方法的一个补充。
Abstract:
The applicability of periphytic ciliate communities in assessing scenic water quality was studied using glass slides as artificial substrata during a 1—year cycle (January—December, 2015) for scenic water in the southeast region of Shanghai. Samples were collected monthly at a depth of 1 m, and environmental variables, namely permanganate index (CODMn), levels of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), nitrite nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), transparency (SD), water temperature (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity (Spc), salinity (Sal), and pH, were measured synchronously for comparison with biotic parameters. Totally 51 ciliate species were identified, belonging to 12 orders. The species number followed a regular pattern: spring > winter > summer > autumn; the highest species number was 27 in January, while the lowest was 10 in February. The average annual abundance of periphytic ciliates was 127.29 individuals per square centimeter; the lowest abundance was 24.27 individuals per square centimeter in February, while the highest was 248.57 individuals per square centimeter in May. Multivariate analysis suggested that TP and T were major environmental factors influencing the community structure of periphytic ciliates, and the combination of TP, T, DO, and pH could best explain the changes in the community structure of periphytic ciliates. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that the average monthly abundance of periphytic ciliates had significant positive correlations with T and Spc. Peritrichida had significant positive correlations with SD and Spc, and highly significant positive correlation with T; Tintinnida correlated significantly with T, TN, and SD; whereas, Pleurostomatida had a significant negative correlation with SD. The dominant species correlated significantly with environmental variables, as well. Vorticella campanula, Vorticella sp. 2, Zoothamnium sp. 1, and Epistylis hentscheli had positive correlations with SD and T, and negative correlations with DO, TN, and Sal; Vorticella convallaria correlated significantly with SD, TN, TP, CODMn, and Sal; Carchesium polypinum correlated negatively with T and SD, and positively with DO, TN, and Sal. In conclusion, periphytic ciliates are good bioindicators for evaluating the quality of water bodies, and the glass slide method can be used as a supplementary approach to the monitoring of scenic water quality.
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