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谢富赋,刘红玉,李玉凤,王娟,刘伶.基于极坐标定位的丹顶鹤多尺度越冬生境选择研究 ——以江苏盐城自然保护区为例.生态学报,2018,(15).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201708141456  
基于极坐标定位的丹顶鹤多尺度越冬生境选择研究 ——以江苏盐城自然保护区为例
Multi-scale overwintering habitat selection of red-crowned crane based on polar coordinate positioning at the Yancheng Nature Reserve, Jiangsu Province, China
投稿时间:2017-08-14  修订日期:2018-03-09
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201708141456
关键词丹顶鹤  多尺度  生境选择  越冬期  盐城自然保护区
Key WordsRed-crowned cranes  multi-scale  habitat selection  overwintering stage  Yancheng nature reserve
基金项目国家自然科学(31570459);江苏省高校自然科学研究重大项目(15KJA70002);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(PAPD)。
作者单位E-mail
谢富赋 南京师范大学 xiefufuni@126.com 
刘红玉 南京师范大学 liuhongyu@njnu.edu.cn 
李玉凤 南京师范大学 pandalee_0826@163.com 
王娟 南京师范大学 wangjjsyctu@163.com 
刘伶 南京师范大学 liuling201311@163.com 
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摘要:
丹顶鹤作为湿地环境的指示物种,其种群数量逐年下降引起了野生动物保护工作者的广泛关注。近年来,随着研究的深入,鸟类生境选择具有多尺度特征的观点逐渐成为研究者的共识。江苏盐城自然保护区是丹顶鹤大陆西线种群最重要的越冬栖息地,选择该区域进行多尺度越冬生境选择研究对于丹顶鹤保护具有重要现实意义。基于遥感影像和丹顶鹤越冬分布的调查,本文用极坐标的方法在GIS软件中对丹顶鹤分布定位进行制图。借助ArcGIS 10.2和fragstats 4.2软件,从点缓冲、景观和区域3个尺度系统分析丹顶鹤越冬生境多尺度利用特征。在点缓冲尺度上,通过缓冲分析和叠置分析描述丹顶鹤生境利用的强度,发现丹顶鹤连续利用生境和经常利用生境的植被类型是碱蓬,偶尔在芦苇中活动,偏好生境区植被覆盖度在30%以下,植被高度在60 cm以下。在景观尺度上,丹顶鹤偏好程度较高的前三类生境为芦苇沼泽、碱蓬沼泽、明水,对互花米草沼泽具有负向选择。在区域尺度上,受道路和土地利用干扰影响,丹顶鹤主要分布于保护区核心区的低干扰区域;除了干扰之外还与生境面积、生境破碎程度密切相关。综合三个尺度,研究得出丹顶鹤生境选择具有明显的多尺度利用特征,丹顶鹤保护需要考虑多尺度生境保护问题。
Abstract:
Abstract: As the top of the wetland food chain, red-crowned cranes is an indicator species of wetland quality. At present, the declining population of red-crowned cranes has drawn widespread attentions of wildlife protection people. Habitat loss and fragmentation may be the main reasons of the population declination of red-crowned cranes. When the research is going on, it was suggested that multi-scale characteristics about habit can help us to advance knowledge of bird selection. Yancheng nature reserve in Jiangsu province is the most important overwintering habitat for the west population line of red-crowned crane in the world. It is of great practical significance by taking Yancheng as the research area for the protection of red-crowned cranes. Remote sensing images was used to identify the landscape of study area, and four field observations were processed to investigate the number and the distribution of red crowned-cranes population during the winters of 2015-2016. The method of polar coordinates in GIS was used to map the foraging distribution of red-crowned cranes. The multi-scales, which contained point buffer scale, landscape scale and region scale, were selected to analyse the utilization of the overwintering habitat of red-crowned cranes. On the point of buffer scale, the buffer and overlay analysis of GIS were achieved by using ArcGIS 10.2 software. This method can describe the habitat use intensity of red crowned-crane. The results showed that red-crowned cranes like stay in the vegetation that covered with Suaeda best, and reed better. The coverage and the height of vegetation which were less than 30% and 60 cm respectively are well received by the red-crowned crane. On the landscape scale, field surveies of population numbers in multi-landscapes were recombined into single landscape. The results showed that the top three preference habitats of red-crowned crane were reed marshes, Suaeda marsh, and water. Suaeda marsh, reed marsh and water were selected by the red-crowned crane. They did not select Spartina alterniflora marsh as their habit. On the regional scale, the interference intensity was described by road and land use. The response of the red-crowned crane to the interference was discussed by the neighborhood analysis. The red-crowned cranes were distributed in the core area of the low interference with large area. In addition to interference, the habitat area and its fragmentation are closely related to the habitat selection of red-crowned cranes. The landscape index of different interference intensity showed that the low disturbing habitat with less than 2 km2 and higher fragmentation will not be used by red-crowned cranes. Based on the result of three scales, we concluded that the habitat selection of red-crowned crane has obvious multi-scale utilization characteristics. Multi-scale habitat characteristics should be considered while protecting red-crowned cranes.
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