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姚敏,崔保山.哈尼梯田湿地生态系统的垂直特征.生态学报,2006,26(7):2115~2124 本文二维码信息
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哈尼梯田湿地生态系统的垂直特征
The vertical characteristics of ecosystem of Hani’s terrace paddyfield in Yunnan, China
投稿时间:2005-08-18  修订日期:2006-05-15
DOI:
关键词哈尼梯田湿地  湿地类型  湿地水  湿地土壤  垂直特征
Key WordsHani’s terrace paddyfield  wetland landscape  wetland types  wetland water  wetland soil  vertical characteristics
基金项目
作者单位
姚敏 北京师范大学环境学院环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室北京 100875 
崔保山 北京师范大学环境学院环境模拟与污染控制国家重点联合实验室北京 100875 
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摘要:
云南南部亚热带山区的哈尼梯田湿地分布于海拔144~2000m、坡度在15~75°的山坡上,具有独特的垂直特征,高程变化是其垂直特征的主要驱动力。从景观、类型、植被、水文和土壤几个方面论述了哈尼梯田的垂直特性。哈尼梯田湿地景观呈现“森林-村庄-梯田-河流”垂直特性。由低海拔到高海拔将哈尼梯田湿地划分为5个类型,不同类型上湿地植物——水稻的品种、栽培、耕作方式等均呈现垂直方向上的变化特征。哈尼梯田涵养水源的能力为5050m3/hm2,水质随海拔降低呈现“好-差-好”的垂直特征,这个变化过程反映了梯田湿地对污染物的强有效的降解作用,进入梯田的污染物的浓度随海拔降低呈指数级下降。通过多元统计法分析,得出土壤综合质量指数排序为:神林或林地>梯地>梯田>水源地,除水源地外,土壤有机质、全氮和全磷的含量以及综合质量基本呈现与海拔成正相关关系;全福庄土壤综合质量好于勐品土壤总和质量;哈尼梯田湿地的垂直特性是其区别于其它类型湿地的显著特征,分析和比较哈尼梯田湿地与平原稻田湿地和天然湿地在结构、功能和价值上的异同性,进一步突出了哈尼梯田的垂直特性。
Abstract:
In accordance with the classification of wetlands by Lamsar Convention, Hani’s terrace paddyfield of Yunnan Province in China, is one type of the constructed wetlands. Hani’s terrace paddyfield distributs from 144 m to 2000 m above sea level (ASL) in the southern slopes of Ailao Mountains. The degree of the slopes ranged from 15° to 75°. In this case study, we investigated the ecosystem of terrace paddyfield of Mengpin and Quanfuzhuang administrative villages, located in the center of the cultural heritage conservation district of Hani’s terrace paddyfield. The ecosystem of Hani’s terrace paddyfield is composed of “forest-village-terrace paddyfield-river" with decrease of altitude. Soil and water samples were taken in forests, villages and terrace paddyfield to study the vertical characteristics of Hani’s terrace paddyfield. PO4-P and NH3-N in water were measured. Seven nutrient factors of soil were determined, including organic matter, C/N, pH, total N, total P, available P, and available K. We also evaluated the soil quality using the soil nutrient factors.
Vertical changes of landscape, wetland types, wetland plants, hydrographic characteristic and soil nutrients were characterized. The results showed that: (1) Hani’s terrace paddyfield could been divided into five types of wetlands: North tropical valley terrace paddyfiled, South subtropical mountain terrace paddyfield, Middle subtropical mountain terrace paddyfield, North subtropical mountain terrace paddyfield, and South Temperate zone mountain terrace paddyfiled. In different types of terrace paddyfield, about 108 species of rice and some different cultivated modes were used to adapt to climate and environment. The rice varieties and cultivate ways were different in each type of wetland. (2) Hani’s terrace paddyfield had great water conservation capacity and had strong ability of purifying the contaminations. The impoundage of Hani’s terrace paddyfieldies was about 5050m3/hm2. The contaminants in the terrace paddyfield soils decreased exponentially with the decrease of altitude. (3) Comparison of soil quality in five different land use types indicated decreasing order of soil quality: forest>terrace land>terrace paddyfield>water source. Except soil of headwaters, unit-factors such as OM, TN and TP, and the comprehensive qualities of soil all increased with the increase of altitude in individual sampling zone. Soil general quality of Quanfuzhuang sampling zone was better than Mengpin sampling zone.
The characteristics of structures, functions and values were compared among Hani’s terrace paddyfield, paddyfield in plain, and natural wetlands to emphasize the vertical characteristic. It was concluded that Hani’s terrace paddyfield have stronger functions and higher values than the paddyfiekd in plain, but lower than natural wetlands.
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