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刘某承,苏宁,伦飞,曹智,李文华,闵庆文.区域生态文明建设水平综合评估指标.生态学报,2014,34(1):97~104 本文二维码信息
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区域生态文明建设水平综合评估指标
An integrated indicator on regional ecological civilization construction
投稿时间:2012-11-04  修订日期:2013-12-28
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201211041534
关键词生态文明  综合指标  生态系统服务  生态足迹  GDP
Key Wordsecological civilization construction  integrated indicator  ecosystem services  ecological footprint  GDP
基金项目中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所“一三五”战略科技计划资助项目(2012ZD007)
作者单位E-mail
刘某承 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 liumc@igsnrr.ac.cn 
苏宁 北京体育大学研究生院, 北京 100084  
伦飞 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101  
曹智 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101  
李文华 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101  
闵庆文 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101  
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摘要:
2007年中国政府提出“生态文明”建设以来,已批准了三批52个生态文明建设试点。生态系统与社会经济发展的复杂性要求科学、客观地评估区域生态文明建设,以便科学地决策和行动。区域生态文明建设是一个复合的过程,其核心在于社会-经济-自然复合生态系统各组分的和谐进步。因此,基于生态系统服务(ES)、生态足迹(EF)和人均GDP3个指标,以及这3个指标所代表的资源禀赋、人类对自然生态系统的占用、经济增长之间的线性逻辑关系,构建综合性相对指数;并以此对2010年中国大陆各省(市、直辖市)的生态文明建设水平进行了综合评估,其中,海南省的生态文明建设指数最大,为0.5091,北京市的指数最小,为0.0377;最后,分析了2010年中国大陆各省(市、区)生态文明建设的生态压力和生态效率,北京、天津和上海3个直辖市处于低资源禀赋高资源消费状况,全国大多数省(市、区)处于低消耗和低产出的阶段,经济增长尚有较大的潜力。
Abstract:
As the demand for natural resources is growing rapidly, along with rapid population growth, ecological and environmental problems have increasingly become the bottlenecks of sustainable development of China. In 2007, the Chinese government put forward "ecological civilization construction", and now 52 cities have been selected as "Ecological Civilization Cities" pilot sites. Recently, it also proposed to "Vigorously Promote the Construction of Ecological Civilization", which means ecological civilization should be conducted with the civilization of politics, economy, society and culture, simultaneously and equally importantly. With the concept of balancing the relationship between society development and nature protection, ecological civilization construction has already guided local sustainable development in many regions. However, due to the complexity of ecosystems and socioeconomic systems, it needs to scientifically evaluate the progress of regional ecological civilization construction. Then, it can help decision-makers and also can scientifically guide local sustainable development. Ecological civilization construction is an integrated process, and its core content is to keep in harmony development of all the components in the complex social-economic-natural ecosystems. Therefore, in this paper, s ecosystem services (ES), ecological footprint (EF) and gross domestic product (GDP) were selected in order to reflect the resource endowment, human occupation on natural capital, and the economic growth. Thus, an integrated indicator was constructed from the three indexes based on the linear correlation among them, an integrated indicator was constructed, which can comprehensively evaluate local ecological civilization construction.
Based on the integrated indicator, 31 provinces were assessed on their progress of ecological civilization construction in China, in 2010. Then, we calculated ecosystem services, ecological index and the integrated indicator in each province. According to the results, we finally analyzed their ecological efficiency and ecological pressure during the process of ecological civilization construction. The results showed that Hainan province has the biggest indicator of 0.5091 while Beijing has the smallest indicator of 0.0377, which meant the potential capacity of ecological civilization construction of Hainan province is largest while Beijing had the least potential. This paper also analyzed the ecological efficiency and ecological pressure of ecological civilization construction of each province in China. It illustrated that, if human occupation on natural capital was low in one region, it can provide more goods and services to promote local sustainable development thanks to its healthy ecosystem; if human occupation is on a high level, its sustainable development capacity was relatively worse although the local ecosystem services were higher. However, if human occupation reached a very high level, their local development relied heavily on external input, and their sustainability was the worst.
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