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卢红芳,王晨阳,郭天财,尹云星.灌浆前期高温和干旱胁迫对小麦籽粒蛋白质含量和氮代谢关键酶活性的影响.生态学报,2014,34(13):3612~3619 本文二维码信息
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灌浆前期高温和干旱胁迫对小麦籽粒蛋白质含量和氮代谢关键酶活性的影响
Effects of high-temperature and drought stress on protein concentration and key enzyme activities in relation to nitrogen metabolism in wheat grains during the early stage of grain filling
投稿时间:2012-01-22  修订日期:2014-03-19
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201211221654
关键词小麦  蛋白质    高温  干旱
Key Wordswheat grains  protein  enzymes  high temperature  drought stress
基金项目国家“十二五”科技支撑计划项目(2011BAD16B07,2012BAD04B07);公益性行业科研专项(201203031,201203033)
作者单位E-mail
卢红芳 河南农业大学农学院, 郑州 450002  
王晨阳 河南农业大学农学院, 郑州 450002
国家小麦工程技术研究中心, 郑州 450002 
xmzxwang@163.com 
郭天财 河南农业大学农学院, 郑州 450002
国家小麦工程技术研究中心, 郑州 450002 
 
尹云星 河南农业大学农学院, 郑州 450002  
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摘要:
为探讨花后逆境胁迫影响小麦籽粒氮代谢及蛋白质合成的生理机制,采用盆栽和人工气候室模拟花后高温的方式,研究了灌浆前期短暂高温和干旱胁迫对两个不同品质类型小麦品种籽粒蛋白质含量、组分及谷氨酰胺合成酶(GS)、谷丙转氨酶(GPT)活性的影响。结果表明,灌浆前期高温、干旱及其复合胁迫均显著提高两品种籽粒蛋白质及组分含量,但降低谷/醇比。逆境胁迫使蛋白质积累量和粒重显著下降,其中高温处理使两品种蛋白质产量分别下降20.7%和12.4%,粒重下降23.2%和24.0%;干旱胁迫使两品种蛋白质产量分别下降16.2%和11.9%,粒重下降18.0%和16.0%;复合胁迫使两品种蛋白质产量分别下降26.1%和15.8%,粒重下降29.9%和28.9%。高温、干旱及其复合胁迫下两品种籽粒氮代谢关键酶活性升高。花后8,17,23,29 d的GS活性和花后11,17 d的GPT活性与蛋白质含量呈显著或极显著正相关,花后23,35 d的GS和花后8,17,23 d的GPT活性与蛋白质产量呈显著或极显著负相关,花后8,17,23,29,35 d的GS和花后8,11,17,23 d的GPT活性与籽粒产量呈显著或极显著负相关。试验条件下,高温处理对籽粒蛋白质合成的影响大于干旱胁迫,二者具有叠加效应,强筋小麦品种郑麦366受逆境胁迫的影响较大。
Abstract:
To explore the physiological mechanisms of stresses on nitrogen metabolism and protein accumulation in wheat grains, a pot experiment was performed at the Scientific & Educational Park of Henan Agricultural University from 2010 to 2012. Zhengmai 366 and Yunong 949, wheat cultivars with different gluten-strengths, were grown in 24-cm pots with 10 kg loam soil for the experiment, which was performed using a completely randomized design in three replicates. Plants were initially grown in the field environment and were then transferred to a climate-controlled greenhouse for the high temperature (HT) treatment. HT began from the 8th day after anthesis (DAA) and ended at the 11th DAA, with a high temperature of 38℃for five hours from 11:00 to 16:00, after which the plants were returned to the field environment. The concentration of protein and its components, and the activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in the grains were measured to evaluate the effects of the stresses. The results showed that HT, drought stress (DS) and their combination significantly increased protein and its components' concentrations, yet decreased the ratio of glutenin to gliadin. The protein accumulation was also reduced by stresses. For example, for Zhengmai 366, the protein yield significantly decreased by 20.7% under HT, by 16.2% under DS, and by 26.1% under a combination of HT and DS. In Yunong 949, the protein yield decreased by 12.4% under HT, by 11.9% under DS and by 15.8% under a combination of HT and DS. The grain weight significantly declined by 23.2% under HT, by 18.0% under DS and by 29.9% under a combination of HT and DS, in Zhengmai 366, and decreased by 24.0% under HT, by 16.0% under DS, and by 29.9% under a combination of HT and DS, in Yunong 949. However, the activities of GS and GPT were promoted under HT, DS and their combination. A correlation analysis showed that the activity of GS was positively correlated with the protein concentration in mature wheat grains at significant or extremely significant levels at 8, 17, 23, and 29 DAA. However, GS activity was negatively correlated with protein yield at extremely significant levels at 23 and 35 DAA, and it was negatively correlated with grain yield at significant or extremely significant levels at 8, 17, 23, 29 and 35 DAA. The activity of GPT was positively correlated with protein concentration at extremely significant levels at 11 and 17 DAA. However, GPT activity was negatively correlated with protein yield at extremely significant levels at 8, 17 and 23 DAA and negatively correlated with grain yield at significant or extremely significant levels at 8, 11, 17 and 23 DAA. The results also indicated that, under the present experimental conditions, the influence of the HT treatment was greater than that of the DS, and an overlap effect existed between HT and DS. In addition, Zhengmai 366, a high-gluten cultivar, showed more sensitivity to stresses than Yunong 949, a mid-gluten cultivar. These results may aid in understanding how HT and DS influence protein accumulation and may be useful in improving wheat quality.
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