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刘晶茹,吕彬,张娜,石垚.生态产业园的复合生态效率及评价指标体系.生态学报,2014,34(1):136~141 本文二维码信息
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生态产业园的复合生态效率及评价指标体系
Definition and evaluation indicators of ecological industrial park’s complex eco-efficiency
投稿时间:2012-12-07  修订日期:2013-12-09
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201212071764
关键词生态效率  生态产业园  指标体系
Key Wordsecological efficiency  ecological industrial park  indicator
基金项目自然科学基金面上资助项目(71173209);自然科学基金重点资助项目(71033005)
作者单位E-mail
刘晶茹 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 liujingru@rcees.ac.cn 
吕彬 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
张娜 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
石垚 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
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摘要:
生态产业园的建设在国内取得了丰富的成果,已成为我国循环经济建设和可持续发展的重要载体之一。与国外不同,我国的生态产业园最终将演化为生态城市,其功能也从工业生产功能发展为融生产、生活和生态为一体的复合功能。生态效率是评价一个研究对象投入产出效益的量化工具,将生态效率的理念融入生态产业园,从园区作为区域可持续发展的载体、作为生态城市演化的一个特定阶段的视角,提出了复合生态效率的概念,构建了园区复合生态效率评价指标体系,并以郑州经济技术开发区为例,说明了复合生态效率指标在产业园中的应用。
Abstract:
Industrial ecosystem is a kind of Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem (SENCE). Development of industrial ecosystem is one of the most popular methods being implemented in the industrial world for sustainable development. Eco-industrial Park (EIP) provides a specific practice for the medium level of industrial ecosystem and serves as an effective mode to achieve sustainable development of economy, society and environment in China. In recent years, EIP has been developed very fast in China. Up to September, 2012, there are 45 national EIPs authorized by Ministry of Environmental Protection, Ministry of Commerce and Ministry of Science and Technology. Most of these EIPs are national economic and technical development zone and national high-tech industrial development zone. These development zones are important carriers of Chinese urbanization process. Therefore, the dynamic processes of Chinese EIPs are quite different from other countries, where the functions of EIPs in China is not only industrial production, but a Social-Economic-Natural Complex function, and its final evaluation shape of EIPs will be eco-cities.
In this paper, we developed a special definition of complex eco-efficiency based on SENCE theory to measure the development status of Chinese EIPs. The accurate measurement of the complex eco-efficiency of EIP industrial eco-system in China will help to understand the overall operation conditionsand the importance of various factors on the improvement of the complex eco-efficiency, which is convenient for setting up feedback mechanism timely and promoting the comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of EIPs. We first discussed the structure, functions and processes of complex industrial ecosystem briefly, then the development of evaluation indicator system in detail. An evaluation indicator system for complex eco-efficiency of EIP on a frame of structure-function-process was developed based on the theoretical review. The indicator system was divided into five layers and three sub-groups. There were totally 25 technological indicators among which 23 were quantitative, 2 were qualitative. 6 structural indicators, 15 functional indicators and 4 process indicators were included in three sub-groups. Zhengzhou national economic and technical development zone was selected for case study to explain how to collect data and information on EIP level and how to make a systematic assessment of these indicators. The focus of this paper was to explain that these indicators were easily accessible and useful.
In 2006, the Ministry of Environmental Protection issued a series of national standards for EIPs. Although they divided EIPs into sector-specific EIPs, sector-integrate EIPs and venous industry based EIPs, the indicators of these three types are similar. Except for economic development indictors, most of these indicators are related to environmental pollution control and environmental management. These indicators are useful on factory level of EIPs, but not useful when we take EIP as a whole ecosystem. In this paper, we tried to develop indicators which are more ecologically and systematically, based on our understanding of EIPs as a complex ecosystem and a special evolution process of eco-cities.
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