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宋英石,李锋,王效科,付芝红,赵丹.城市地表硬化对银杏生境及生理生态特征的影响.生态学报,2014,34(8):2164~2171 本文二维码信息
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城市地表硬化对银杏生境及生理生态特征的影响
Effects of urban imperious surface on the habitat and ecophysiology characteristics of Ginkgo biloba
投稿时间:2013-03-28  修订日期:2013-11-06
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201303280545
关键词城市地表硬化  银杏  生理生态
Key Wordsurban imperious surface  Ginkgo biloba  ecophysiology
基金项目国家自然科学基金面上项目(71273254,30970507)
作者单位E-mail
宋英石 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
李锋 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 lifeng@rcees.ac.cn 
王效科 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
付芝红 中国矿业大学(北京), 化学与环境工程学院, 北京 100083  
赵丹 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
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摘要:
城市大规模的地表硬化改变了城市环境,影响了城市中植物的正常生长。利用土壤水分温度仪ECH2O测定了不同硬化地表下土壤含水率(WCS)和土壤温度(Ts),利用LI-6400光合仪,并配备荧光叶室,测定了银杏生长的环境因子和银杏生理生态参数。研究结果表明,城市地表硬化对银杏生长环境的影响主要表现为空气温度(Ta)和土壤温度(Ts)升高,空气相对湿度(RH)和土壤含水率(WCS)下降,银杏对地表硬化的生理生态响应表现为净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)降低,叶面饱和水汽压亏缺(VPDL)增大,叶片含水率(LWC)下降;最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)和PSⅡ实际光合电子传递量子效率(ΦPSⅡ)下降,硬化程度越高,银杏受到的胁迫越重;受城市地表硬化的影响,银杏吸收的光能用于光化学反应的比例减少,而用于热耗散和荧光耗散的比例增加,城市硬化地表上银杏的水分利用效率(WUE)、光能利用效率(LUE)和CO2利用效率(CUE)明显下降。
Abstract:
City is a kind of social-economic-natural complex ecosystem dominated by human activities. With the accelerating of urbanization, the land use is being transformed from natural landscape to impervious surface in urban areas, such as buildings, roads, roof, squares and so on. Urban imperious surface changes the environment factors, hinders energy exchange between air and soil, and influences urban plant growth. In this research we studied the effects of urban imperious surface on habitat of Ginkgo biloba and its ecophysiology response to the imperious surface. We designed two different types of imperious surface in urban areas. One is totally impervious cover (TIC) which is a marble square, and the coefficient of permeability is zero. The other is partially impervious cover (PIC) which is covered by bricks, and the coefficient of permeability is 33%. A turf cover (NC) was chosen as the contrast, and the coefficient of permeability is 88%. The Ginkgo bilobas growing on the three kinds of land covers were planted in the same time and received the same maintenance. Soil temperature (Ts) and water content of soil (WCS) were measured by ECH2O. Gas exchange characteristics such as photosynthesis (Pn), transpiration (Tr), stomata conductance (Gs), saturation vapor pressure deficit of leaf (VPDL) were measured by Portable photosynthesis measuring system Li-6400. chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics such as optimal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency ΦPSⅡ, quantum efficiency of light-dependent thermal dissipation Φf.D, quantum efficiency of light-independent and fluorescence energy dissipation ΦNPQ were measured and calculated with the help of fluorescence chamber (6400-40). Relative water content of leaf was measured by weight method. The results showed that temperature of air (Ta) above TIC and PIC were 3.2℃ and 2.1 ℃ higher than NC, and temperature of soil (Ts) increased 1.5 ℃and 2.2 ℃ respectively. Relative humidity of air (RH) above TIC and PIC were about 5%-6% lower than NC and water content of soil (WCS) under TIC and PIC were about 4%-5% lower than NC in urban areas. Ginkgo biloba's ecophysiology response to the imperious surface is that the decrease of photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), conductance to H2O (Gs) and leaf water content (LWC). The Pn of Ginkgo biloba planted on TIC and PIC were 39.3% and 22.7% lower than those on NC. Tr and Gs also had similar decrease trend. Compared to Ginkgo biloba planted on NC, the Ginkgo biloba planted on impervious surface (include TIC and PIC), the Fv/Fm and ΦPSⅡ decreased, but VPDL and Φf.D increased, indicating that due to the impact of impervious surface approximately 10% more energy absorbed by leaf was released as heat but 5%-9% less energy was used for photosynthesis. The more urban imperious surface covered, the more severe stress to Ginkgo biloba suffered. The water use efficiency (WUE), light use efficiency (LUE) and CO2 use efficiency (CUE) of Ginkgo biloba growing in urban imperious surface are 20%-40% less than that in the turf cover. This study revealed the response of Ginkgo biloba's ecophysiology characteristics and variations characters on different surface covers. It is very important to improve quality of the plant habitat and enhance ecological services of urban green space. It also provides a scientific reference for urban greening and constructing of the ecological land.
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