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罗先香,朱永贵,张龙军,杨建强.集约用海对海洋生态环境影响的评价方法.生态学报,2014,34(1):182~189 本文二维码信息
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集约用海对海洋生态环境影响的评价方法
The evaluation method in the impact of intensive sea use on the marine ecological environment
投稿时间:2013-04-28  修订日期:2013-09-11
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201304280849
关键词集约用海  海洋生态环境  评价指标体系  生境质量  生态响应
Key Wordsintensive sea use  the marine ecological environment  evaluation index system  habitat quality  ecological response
基金项目海洋公益性行业科研专项资助项目(201005009)
作者单位E-mail
罗先香 海洋环境与生态教育部重点实验室, 中国海洋大学, 青岛 266100  
朱永贵 海洋环境与生态教育部重点实验室, 中国海洋大学, 青岛 266100  
张龙军 海洋环境与生态教育部重点实验室, 中国海洋大学, 青岛 266100  
杨建强 国家海洋局北海分局, 青岛 266033;山东省海洋生态环境与防灾减灾重点实验室, 青岛 266033 yang-jq@163.com 
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摘要:
集中集约用海是一种相对高效、生态和科学的用海方式,但也不可避免会干扰海洋生态系统,甚至带来海洋环境污染和生态破坏。因此,将集约用海工程对海洋生态环境的影响降到最低,进行集约用海对海洋生态环境影响的科学评价是十分重要的。通过分析集约用海工程对海洋生态系统的影响,提出了集约用海工程对海洋生态环境影响评价的主要内容、思路和流程,从海洋生态系统的非生物因子和生物因子两个方面构建了基于“生境质量”和“生态响应”的集约用海对海洋生态环境影响的评价指标体系。“生境质量”指标反映了集约用海工程影响海域的海洋生物栖息环境质量状况的变化,主要包括水环境、沉积环境和典型物种的生物质量指标,“生态响应”指标反映了集约用海工程影响的海域不同营养级的生物对变化环境的生态响应,它主要包括生物群落结构指标和生态敏感区结构、功能指标。在此基础上,结合我国海洋生态环境监测和评估现状,研究并确定了生态环境影响的各评价因子的权重、标准及评价等级,建立了集约用海对海洋生态环境影响的综合指数法评价模型,通过集约用海工程建设前后生态环境综合指数的变化量ΔE来定量地衡量其对海洋生态环境影响的程度。以期为适宜的集约用海工程规模和科学选址提供技术支撑。
Abstract:
The intensive sea use refers to a centralized development mode with multiple marine reclamation projects in a specific area which were uniformly planned and deployed. Compared with traditional extensive marine reclamation, the intensive sea use is relatively more efficient, ecological and scientific, and is also an effective action to promote the coordinative development of society, economy and marine environment. However, the intensive sea use would also inevitably disturb the marine ecosystem, even result in marine environmental pollution and ecological destruction. Therefore, it is very important to minimize and evaluate the impact of the intensive sea use projects on marine ecosystem. In the present study, main content, thought and process of marine ecological impact assessment were stated by analyzing the impacts of the intensive sea use projects on marine ecosystem, and the evaluation index system is constructed based on habitat quality and ecological response from biotic and abiotic factors in marine ecosystem. Habitat quality, including water environment, sedimentary environment and biological quality index of typical species, reflects the changes of marine habitats affected by the intensive sea use. Ecological response, including the biome structure index, the structure and function index of ecological sensitive area, reflects the ecological response of the different trophic levels to environment changes resulted from the intensive use sea. The evaluation index system is well arranged, which can comprehensively and objectively reflect the characteristics, state changes and influence degree of different level subsystems of ecosystem. Connecting with our country's marine environmental monitoring and current assessment, the weight, standard and evaluation grade of ecological impact factors were studied and determined. The model based on comprehensive index method was also established, which may evaluate the impacts of the intensive sea use on marine ecology, and thus determine the suitability of marine engineering proposal using the variation of the sea ecological environment comprehensive index before and after the project construction of the intensive use sea (ΔE). When ΔE > 30%, it implies that marine ecosystem suffers severely impact; when 15% < ΔE≤30%, it suggests that marine ecosystem suffers large impact; when 5% < ΔE≤15%, it suggests that marine ecosystem suffers general impact; and when ΔE≤5%, it indicates that marine ecosystem is slight affected or not affected. Therefore, these results are expected to offer appropriate technological supports for deciding the scales and sites of the intensive marine engineerings, and also provide service for scientific management of the intensive sea use.
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