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程翠云,任景明,王如松.我国农业生态效率的时空差异.生态学报,2014,34(1):142~148 本文二维码信息
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我国农业生态效率的时空差异
Spatial-temporal distribution of agricultural eco-efficiency in China
投稿时间:2013-04-28  修订日期:2013-11-08
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201304280851
关键词生态效率  农业生产  资本
Key Wordsagricultural eco-efficiency  agricultural production  capital
基金项目国家自然科学基金重点资助项目(71033005);国家环保公益性行业科研专项资助项目(201309035)
作者单位E-mail
程翠云 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085;环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
任景明 环境保护部环境工程评估中心, 北京 100012  
王如松 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 wangrs@rcees.ac.cn 
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摘要:
农业生态效率是按照定量化的方式反映区域农业发展可持续发展水平,可以作为决策者制定政策的一个抓手。利用基于机会成本的经济核算方法对我国2003-2010 年的农业生态效率进行总体分析与评价,并利用回归模型分析农业生态效率的影响因素。结果表明:我国农业生态效率总体水平比较低,但呈逐年好转的趋势,其中劳动力资源和COD环境要素在不同时期对生态价值增长起到关键性作用;农业生态效率空间分布特征显著,秦岭-淮河以北的省市区和传统粮食主产区的农业生态效率相对较低;区域资源环境禀赋条件有助于农业生态效率的提高,但是农资投入和农业政策支持与农业生态效率呈显著负相关,未来进一步提升农业生产资源与环境要素合理配置是保障农业生产可持续的必然选择。
Abstract:
Combining a strong economic performance and a sustainable use of natural resources is one of the major objectives of current Chinese agricultural policy. Agricultural eco-efficiency facilitates assessing sustainable development of agriculture in an integrated way, thus providing good guidance for decision making. For panel data from 2003 through 2010, a valuation approach-based on a capital analysis and the concept of opportunity costs-is used to assess agricultural eco-efficiency in China. In addition, benchmarking is an important component of the approach, because it reflects a judgment in determining the cost of all capital forms. These capital forms are land, labor, agricultural water consumption, chemical fertilizer, plastic film, pesticide, diesel, gross power of agricultural machinery, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen. Two benchmarks were chosen, the weighted average return on capital and the best economic performance of each capital form. Depending on the applied benchmark, it was found that the two measures of eco-efficiencies differed, but the variations were similar year to year. Because the main objective of this paper is to understand why evaluation objects differ in their eco-efficiency, our assessment adopted the first benchmark. A regression model was then introduced to analyze the determinants of eco-efficiency. The key results are as follows: (1) Using the weighted average return on capital form as a benchmark, the average ecological value is negative in 2003, increasing to a maximum in 2010. The value went from negative to positive in 2007. Among the ten capital forms considered, labor capital and COD capital proved to be the critical resources and drivers for value creation in different years. Agricultural eco-efficiency in China is low, but recorded significant progress over the observed period. A low average eco-efficiency of 0.7 was calculated in 2003, increasing to almost 1.34 in 2010. (2) Spatial distribution characteristics are also significant. The agro-ecological areas in the Northeast Zone, Loess Plateau Zone and Huang-Huai-Hai Plain Zone, which are the traditional major grain-producing areas in China, have a low rate of eco-efficiency. Provinces located north of the Qinling Mountains-the Huaihe River line, comprising the Heilongjiang, Shanxi, Ningxia, Gansu and Xinjiang main grain-producing areas, recorded lower values of eco-efficiency in 2010 than in 2003. Conversely, southern provinces such as Sichuan and Hainan had a high eco-efficiency rate. The reasons behind these regional differences are explained in the study. (3) Taking into account the resource endowment of agricultural production, the characteristics of labor, the input of resources, and the effects of agricultural policy, our empirical model shows that both structural and managerial characteristics have an impact on eco-efficiency. For example, cultivation area per crop and education level of farmers have a significant positive effect on eco-efficiency. A managerial characteristic is chemical fertilizer application per area. More chemical fertilizer application per area leads to a lower eco-efficiency rating in China. The gross power of agricultural machinery, agricultural water consumption, and subsidy levels show similar results as chemical fertilizer application per area. Overall, the study is useful in its identification of weak points in agriculture development in China, information that may support future development of relevant policies and government interventions.
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