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石洪华,王晓丽,郑伟,王嫒.海洋生态系统固碳能力估算方法研究进展.生态学报,2014,34(1):12~22 本文二维码信息
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海洋生态系统固碳能力估算方法研究进展
Review of carbon sequestration assessment method in the marine ecosystem
投稿时间:2013-04-28  修订日期:2013-10-23
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201304280855
关键词海洋生态系统  固碳  估算方法  碳交换通量
Key Wordsmarine ecosystem  carbon sequestration  assessment method  carbon exchange flux
基金项目国家科技基础性工作专项资助项目(2012FY112500);国家自然科学基金资助项目(41206111,41206112);海洋公益性行业科研专项经费资助项目(201005009,201305023);国家海洋局第一海洋研究所中央级科研院所基本科研业务经费资助项目(2013G30,2013G27)
作者单位E-mail
石洪华 国家海洋局第一海洋研究所, 青岛 266061 shihonghua@fio.org.cn 
王晓丽 天津理工大学环境科学与安全工程学院, 天津 300384  
郑伟 国家海洋局第一海洋研究所, 青岛 266061  
王嫒 天津理工大学环境科学与安全工程学院, 天津 300384  
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摘要:
气候变化受到全球关注,大气中CO2含量与气候变化息息相关。海洋是地球上最大的活跃碳库,在气候变化中扮演着举足轻重的作用。定量估算海洋中碳元素的吸收、转移、埋藏速率在全球碳循环及全球气候变化研究中有重要意义。目前,海洋固碳能力估算研究包括:利用海-气界面CO2分压差法估算海洋海-气界面CO2交换通量,根据海水中叶绿素含量建立的生态学数理模型法估算真光层浮游生物的初级生产力,234Th-238U不平衡法估算POC输出通量,210Pb定年法估算有机碳沉积通量。但迄今为止的研究工作尚有一定局限性,碳在大气-海水-沉积物3种介质间交换通量间相互影响的研究较少,海洋中碳垂直传输过程的主要影响因素和关键控制因子尚不明确,在海洋生态系统固碳能力估算方法方面国内外还没有统一的规范和标准。为进一步完善海洋生态系统固碳能力的估算方法,今后的工作应注重海洋固碳整套观测技术、分析和估算方法研究,并建立海洋碳汇估算指标体系、指标标准体系、以及评价标准体系,为我国的碳“减排”、“增汇”国家需求提供技术支持。
Abstract:
The control of greenhouse gas is arguably the most challenging environmental policy issue facing China and other countries. CO2 is considered to be the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributing to global warming. Ocean is the largest active carbon pool, and plays an important role in globe climate change. And it is of great significance in the global carbon cycle to accurately estimate the absorbance, transformation, deposition rate of the carbon element in the marine ecosystem. In general, the air-sea CO2 exchange fluxes were estimated from CO2 partial pressure between the atmosphere and surface seawater, the primary productivity of phytoplankton was calculated by use of the biogeochemical models based on chlorophyll concentrations in the sea, particle organic carbon (POC) export fluxes in the euphotic zone were derived with 234Th-238U disequilibrium in the upper water column, and the organic carbon deposition rate was measured from 210Pb specific activity vertical distribution in the sediment, respectively. Improvements in knowledge of the magnitude of this oceanic carbon uptake can be made thanks to an emerging international observation network that allow routine monitoring of the oceanic CO2 uptake, on decadal and basin scales. However, not all uncertainties have been resolved, and the high variability of oceanic environments means that a unified description of marine carbon sequestration cannot yet be achieved. For example, there is no invaluable information to illustrate the mutual influence on carbon exchange flux in different medium of the atmosphere, sea water, and sedimentation, respectively, although the amount of carbon sequestration had been investigated in the single medium. There is unclear knowledge to indicate the key factors controlling carbon cycle process in the whole system, which includes the air-sea CO2 exchange, the primary productivity of phytoplankton in the sea, POC export in the euphotic zone, and the organic carbon deposition in the sediment. It would be extremely challenging to quantify with acceptable accuracy the carbon sequestration in the ocean on a long term basis, and to adequately monitor unintended impacts over large space and time-scales. So, meaningful projections of future behavior of the oceanic sink are more challenging. Attempts to set a baseline stabilization target for the atmospheric CO2 concentration will ultimately depend on an improved understanding of the oceanic mechanism regulating CO2 uptake and the ability to make useful predictions of this parameter. To further improve the carbon sequestration assessment method in marine ecosystem, the comprehensive knowledge is required to form the assessment system that consists of the observation techniques, analysis method and the amount of carbon sequestration estimate. Furthermore, the index, criterion and standard, as well as evaluating the standard system of carbon sequestration in the marine ecosystem should be addressed in order to meet the demand of carbon reduction and carbon sink increase in China.
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