首页关于本刊影响因子及获奖投稿须知订阅及广告专辑与专题学术会议绿色发表通道优秀论文 
陈卫平,吕斯丹,张炜铃,伊丽丽,焦文涛.再生(污)水灌溉生态风险与可持续利用.生态学报,2014,34(1):163~172 本文二维码信息
二维码(扫一下试试看!)
再生(污)水灌溉生态风险与可持续利用
Ecological risks and sustainable utilization of reclaimed water and wastewater irrigation
投稿时间:2013-05-02  修订日期:2013-11-13
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201305020887
关键词污水回用  农业灌溉  污染风险  环境效益  可持续管理
Key Wordswater reuse  agricultural irrigation  pollution risk  environmental benefit  sustainable management
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(41271501)
作者单位E-mail
陈卫平 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 wpchen@rcees.ac.cn 
吕斯丹 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
张炜铃 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
伊丽丽 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
焦文涛 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
摘要点击次数 2655
全文下载次数 1154
摘要:
作为一个农业大国,水资源贫乏及地域分布不均匀造成了我国严重的农业用水危机。为缓解我国农业用水危机,污水灌溉及再生水灌溉已成为解决农业灌溉水源不足的一项重要措施。在总结污水灌溉及再生水灌溉生态风险的基础上,针对国内研究现状,分析了我国再生水灌溉利用的可行性。研究发现,再生水灌溉的污染风险远小于污水灌溉,且再生水灌溉还具有回用成本低、减少农作物生产成本等经济效益,以及减少污染物向水环境中排放、改善土壤质量等环境效益。与污水灌溉相比再生水在农业灌溉上具有较大的应用前景,应加大其推广与应用的力度。最后,根据国内外的研究现状,提出了一些再生水灌溉可持续管理措施及其安全利用的相关建议。
Abstract:
Inherent uneven distributions of the already limited water resources have led to serious shortages of agricultural irrigation water in China. Municipal and industrial wastewaters have been employed to relief the demand for agricultural irrigation across the nation. Historically, both untreated raw wastewater (including substandard treated effluents) and properly reclaimed water have been involved. Since the 1940s, wastewater irrigated croplands gradually expanded, and by 1998 it increased to 3.62 million hectares. Meanwhile, the water quality of the applied wastewater incrementally improved. Today, the reclaimed water that meets the regulatory standards is replacing the untreated wastewater. Water reuses have drawn the central government's attention. Establishing systematic and comprehensive reuse programs across the nation have become a focus in the most recent five-year national strategic planning. The pace of reclaimed water irrigation practices will accelerate especially in the water deficient areas north of the Yangtze River. In this paper, we analyzed the ecological risks of heavy metals, salts, nitrogen, organic pollutants especially emerging contaminants, and pathogens of irrigating croplands with wastewater and reclaimed water. We found that the soils receiving wastewater irrigation might readily be polluted by the heavy metals carried in the applied water, and the extents of pollutions were dependent on origin of the water and texture of the soils. Heavy metals and organic pollutants that accumulated in the wastewater irrigated soils affected the diversities of soil microbial communities and the activities of soil enzymes. Under long-term wastewater irrigation, soil salinization occurred and led to reductions of soil permeability due to high dissolved salt contents of the applied water. Because of soil salinity accumulation, Cl- and NO3- in groundwater would easily exceed the water quality standards. In addition, the quality and yields of crops also could be harmed by excessive salinity and heavy metals in the soils. In the receiving areas of wastewater irrigation people were exposed to potentially greater health risks than those otherwise due to pathogens in the wastewater. From the agronomic point of view, the primary issue in using properly reclaimed water in irrigation is on salts and nitrogen management. Reclaimed water tends to have higher levels of total dissolved minerals and nitrate. Over the long-term reclaimed water irrigation could cause salinity and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater aquifers to exceed the regulatory standards. When salinity of the irrigated soils rose as water evaporated and salts were left behind, plants will experience increasingly severe salt injuries in terms of stunted growth and reduced yield potentials. The added nitrogen of reclaimed water often caused imbalances of nutrients in the plants' growing medium and caused nitrate to pollute the groundwater. Under the reclaimed water irrigation settings, heavy metal, pathogens and organic chemical pollutants posted little risk to receiving soils and underlying groundwater aquifers. Drawing from the experiences of using reclaimed water in the United States, European Union, and Australia, reclaimed water might be safely used in crop and landscape irrigations if the practices were properly managed to minimize risks of salts buildup in and nitrogen leaching down the soil profile. It illustrated that the risks of environmental pollution in soil and groundwater receiving reclaimed water irrigation were considerably less than those receiving wastewater irrigation. Moreover, reclaimed water is cost effective and ecologically beneficial. Based on the 2010 data, the present reclaimed water reuse program in Beijing generated a net annual benefit of 712 million RMB and the benefits to costs ratio was 1.7 and this ratio would rise had more wastewater were reused. Environmental benefits of reclaimed water irrigation included reducing pollutants discharge into surface water bodies, improving soil quality, and etc. Undoubtedly, reclaimed water irrigation should be encouraged nationwide. At last, for safe and sustainable uses of reclaimed water irrigation in China, we recommend: (a) following the best management practices in irrigation management, (b) improving soil quality appropriately, (c) monitoring nutrient, salt, and pollutant inputs to ensure proper plant growth and prevent salts and pollutants buildup in the soil profile, and (d) separating the application sites and the surroundings by providing setback distances or buffer zones.
HTML 查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器

您是本站第 67403681 位访问者

Copyright © 2005-2019   京ICP备06018880号
地址:北京海淀区双清路18号
  邮编:100085    电话:010-62941099
  E-mail : shengtaixuebao@rcees.ac.cn
本系统由北京勤云科技发展有限公司提供技术支持