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张华,张兰,赵传燕.极端干旱区尾闾湖生态需水估算——以东居延海为例.生态学报,2014,34(8):2102~2108 本文二维码信息
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极端干旱区尾闾湖生态需水估算——以东居延海为例
Ecological water requirement estimation of the rump lake in an extreme arid region of East Juyanhai
投稿时间:2013-06-17  修订日期:2013-11-22
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201306171720
关键词东居延海  生态需水  湖面蒸发  渗漏量  ETM影像
Key WordsEast Juyanhai  ecological water requirement  evaporation of the lake  leakage  ETM images
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(91025015);甘肃省青年科技基金计划(1107RJYA063);西北师大青年教师科研能力提升计划骨干项目(NWNU-LKQN-11-12)
作者单位E-mail
张华 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 兰州 730070 zhanghua@nwnu.edu.com 
张兰 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 兰州 730070  
赵传燕 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 兰州 730070  
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摘要:
以东居延海为研究对象,利用遥感技术目视解译ETM影像,提取东居延海2002-2012年各月湖面面积。通过水文保证率法确定不同保证率下的湖面面积,结合额济纳旗气象站观测的风速、相对湿度、气温、水汽压、降水量等气象数据估算湖泊蒸发耗水量和湖泊降水补给量,根据湖泊渗漏系数估算湖泊渗漏量,最后运用水平衡原理构建湖泊生态需水模型,估算了东居延海在湖面面积保证率为50%、75%、95%时各月月均和年均生态需水量,其中年均生态需水量分别为1.78×108、1.60×108、1.03×108 m3,约占莺落峡年均径流量的9.66%、8.66%、5.59%,约占正义峡年均径流量的16.27%、14.60%、9.42%,约占狼心山年均径流量的30.81%、27.65%、17.84%。
Abstract:
With population growth, industrialization and expansion of irrigated agriculture, in some areas over-exploitation of lake resources, and disruption of the balance of lake ecosystems, have caused problems within lakes such as drying, shrinkage and serious water pollution. This can lead to degradation of the ecological environment around the lake, land desertification, and salinity intensification. Therefore, it is critical to maintain the balance of lake ecosystems. In this paper taking East Juyanhai as the study area we use remote sensing technology and visual interpretation of ETM images of the lake area, and extract data for each month from 2002 to 2012. We determined the lake area using the hydrological guarantee rate method, and used meteorological data on wind speed, relative humidity, air temperature, vapor pressure, and precipitation from the Ejinaqi weather station. We determined the lake leakage coefficient, and constructed a lake ecological water requirement model by applying the water balance principle, conducting preliminary estimates for each month, and determining the annual average ecological water requirement for different guarantee rates in East Juyanhai.
The results were as follows: in January to March each year, the lake area in East Juyanhai remained unchanged. In April, the lake area began to decrease. The lake area reached a minimum in July, and the lake area gradually increased in August. After October, the lake area remained stable. The evaporation water consumption of East Juyanhai was highest from May to August, and maximum evaporation was in June. The average annual evaporation of water consumption under the guarantee rates of 50%, 75%, 95% was 1.7910×108 m3, 1.6072×108 m3, and 1.0373×108 m3, respectively. The leakage of East Juyanhai was reasonably low; the average annual leakage under the guarantee rates of 50%, 75%, 95% was 15.0788×104 m3, 13.5314×104 m3, and 8.7334×104 m3, respectively. Precipitation was mainly concentrated in June to October, and the average annual precipitation recharge under the guarantee rates of 50%, 75%, 95% was 118.1083×104 m3, 105.9882×104 m3, 68.4062×104 m3, respectively. The average annual ecological water requirement of East Juyanhai under the guarantee rates of 50%, 75%, 95% was 1.7807×108 m3, 1.5980×108 m3, and 1.0314×108 m3, respectively; accounted for about 9.66%, 8.66, and 5.59%, respectively, of the average annual runoff of Yingluoxia; about 16.27%, 14.60%, and 9.42%, respectively, of the average annual runoff of Zhengyixia; and about 30.81%, 27.65%, 17.84%, respectively, of the average annual runoff of Langxinshan.
The results showed that: under the minimum guaranteed rate, to maintain the East Juyanhai lake area (23.94 km2), prevent the lake from shrinking, and ensure the surrounding environment is not severely degraded, the minimum ecological water requirement is 1.03×108 m3; under the appropriate guaranteed rate, to maintain the East Juyanhai lake area (37.09 km2) and initially improve the surrounding ecological environment, the minimum ecological water requirement is 1.60×108 m3; under the ideal guaranteed rate, to maintain the East Juyanhai lake area (41.33 km2) and ensure that the surrounding ecological environment is greatly improved, the minimum ecological water requirement is 1.78×108 m3.
This research can provide the basis for rational allocation of Heihe River Basin's water resources. According to the results on ecological water requirements at different guarantee rates, management schedules for East Juyanhai's water resources must account for the relative proportions of upper, middle and lower runoff to ensure the rational allocation of water resources in the Heihe River Basin. The results of the study are also a valuable reference for the restoration and reconstruction of East Juyanhai's surrounding vegetation.
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