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李锋,王如松,赵丹.基于生态系统服务的城市生态基础设施:现状、问题与展望.生态学报,2014,34(1):190~200 本文二维码信息
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基于生态系统服务的城市生态基础设施:现状、问题与展望
Urban ecological infrastructure based on ecosystem services:status,problems and perspectives
投稿时间:2013-07-18  修订日期:2013-09-29
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201307181908
关键词城市  生态基础设施  表面生态学  生态系统服务  地表硬化
Key Wordsurban  ecological infrastructure  surface ecology  ecosystem services  impervious surface
基金项目国家自然科学基金面上资助项目(71273254)
作者单位E-mail
李锋 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 lifeng@rcees.ac.cn 
王如松 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
赵丹 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
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摘要:
城市生态基础设施是城市可持续发展的重要基础,也是建设生态城市的重要保证。生态系统服务是城市生态基础设施建设的核心与关键。在快速城市化的背景下,保障生态基础设施的结构完整性和功能完善性尤为重要。在阐述生态系统服务的基础上,对生态基础设施的概念与类型进行了概述;从城市湿地生态基础设施、绿地生态基础设施以及城市地表硬化的生态工程改造3个方面对城市生态基础设施研究现状进行综述;对生态基础设施结构与功能评估方法进行了总结,对基于生态系统服务的城市生态基础设施研究进行了综合评述,首次提出了城市表面生态学的概念与研究展望,为城市生态系统服务的强化与调控提供了方法论指导。城市生态基础设施与表面生态学的整合研究将对城市水文效应(内涝)、灰霾效应(PM2.5)、热岛效应、水体污染与富营养化等备受关注的重大问题提供新的解决思路与科学方法。
Abstract:
Cities are complex socio-economic-natural ecosystems dominated by human activities, which define land use patterns. Urban ecological infrastructure is the important foundation of urban sustainable development and also the substantial guarantee of eco-city development. Ecosystem service is the core and key of urban ecological infrastructure construction. Ecosystem services provided by ecological infrastructure in urban areas include air purification, climate regulation, noise reduction, waste treatment, food supply, water flow regulation and runoff mitigation, urban temperature regulation, moderation of environmental extremes, pollination and seed dispersal, recreation and cognitive development, animal sighting and ecosystem disservices. With rapid urbanization, it is of great importance to ensure the structural integrity and functional perfection of the ecological infrastructure. The paper began with brief description about the concept and types of the ecological infrastructure based on ecosystem services; then reviewed the research status of ecological infrastructure from three aspects: 1) urban wetland ecological infrastructure; 2) urban green space ecological infrastructure; 3) ecological engineering and reconstruction of urban impervious surface; The influences of urbanization on urban wetlands and green space were analyzed. The complex ecological effect and its evaluation methods of urban impervious surface, including urban flooding, heat island effect, atmospheric haze, noise, water and soil pollution, habitant loss and biodiversity reduction, and biogeochemical cycle change, were also comprehensively summarized in this paper. At last it reviewed the evaluation methods of structure and function of ecological infrastructure and comprehensively put forward the research emphasis and perspectives of urban ecological infrastructure based on ecosystem services. The current problems of research contents, viewpoint, methods and evaluation indicator system were point out. Finally, the concept and perspective of urban surface ecology was advanced for the first time in this article which can provide methodology for enhancement and regulation of urban ecosystem services. The integrated research of urban ecological infrastructure and surface ecology will provide new resolving ideas and scientific methods for urban significant problems such as hydrologic effect (waterlogging), atmospheric haze effect (PM2.5), heat island effect, water pollution and eutrophication. For future study, six perspectives on ecological infrastructure were put forward in this article as follows: 1) Strengthening the quantitative evaluation of urban ecological infrastructure to provide useful references for urban decision-making and management. 2) Enhancing the study on evaluation model of functions of urban ecological infrastructure. 3) Emphasizing the intersecting and application of different majors and subjects. 4) Paying more attention to the integration and system of urban ecological infrastructure. 5) Synthesizing urban ecological infrastructure and municipal infrastructure as a organic whole at the city level. 6) Reinforcing and deepening the study of urban surface ecology related to urban impervious surface to offer scientific approaches for urban environmental issues, such as urban flooding, atmospheric haze effect (PM2.5), heat island effect, water pollution and eutrophication.
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