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陈云,王海亮,韩军旺,韦博良,贾宏汝,叶永忠,袁志良.小秦岭森林群落数量分类、排序及多样性垂直格局.生态学报,2014,34(8):2068~2075 本文二维码信息
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小秦岭森林群落数量分类、排序及多样性垂直格局
Numerical classification, ordination and species diversity along elevation gradients of the forest community in Xiaoqinling
投稿时间:2013-08-16  修订日期:2014-03-20
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201308162093
关键词MRT  DCA  广义可加模型  物种多样性  海拔梯度
Key WordsMRT  DCA  GAM  species diversity  elevation gradient
基金项目河南省科技攻关(132102110133);河南省教育厅科学技术研究重点项目(14A180013)
作者单位E-mail
陈云 河南农业大学 生命科学学院, 郑州 450002  
王海亮 河南小秦岭国家级自然保护区管理局, 灵宝 472500  
韩军旺 河南小秦岭国家级自然保护区管理局, 灵宝 472500  
韦博良 河南农业大学 生命科学学院, 郑州 450002  
贾宏汝 郑州大学 离子束生物工程省重点实验室, 郑州 450052  
叶永忠 河南农业大学 生命科学学院, 郑州 450002  
袁志良 河南农业大学 生命科学学院, 郑州 450002 zlyuan163@163.com 
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摘要:
采用分层取样的方法,沿小秦岭林区海拔梯度设立56块20 m×20 m样地,用多元回归树(MRT)方法对小秦岭森林群落进行分类,采用除趋势对应分析(DCA)进行排序,用广义可加模型(GAM)研究不同生活型物种多样性沿海拔梯度分布格局。结果表明:(1)56个样地进行MRT分类,经交叉验证并依据植物群落分类和命名原则,本区植物群落可分为5类;(2)样方DCA排序明确地揭示各群落类型生境分布范围,较好地反映小秦岭自然保护区森林群落与环境因子的关系;(3)不同生活型物种多样性指数随海拔梯度变化发生一定的波动,且呈现不同的多样性格局:丰富度指数中,乔木层呈显著的单峰分布格局,灌木层在中海拔段呈明显下降趋势,草本层随着海拔的升高总体呈下降趋势;Shannon-Wiener多样性指数中,不同生活型物种随海拔变化趋势与物种丰富度变化趋势大体相同;不同生活型物种的均匀度指数随海拔变化趋势较平缓。
Abstract:
Forest community classification, ordination, and species diversity patterns along altitudinal gradients can reveal relationships between species distribution and environmental factors, providing an important basis for understanding the function of mountain ecosystems. Quantitative analysis is an important approach to research the community classification and sorting. And can reveal profoundly the ecological relationship between plant communities and environmental factors. Species diversity altitude gradient pattern study can further reflect the biological and ecological characteristics of species, distribution and its adaptability to the environment, to reveal the biological diversity environment gradient variation rule, and is important basis to know the mountain ecosystem function and carries on the reasonable operation. But different area and different life forms of species due to the restriction of various factors and present different gradient pattern. Therefore, for a specific mountain to carry out a case study of the species diversity altitude pattern is very necessary to. Xiaoqinling Nature Reserve is located at the intersection of northern, northeastern, central and southwestern plant community types resulting in rich plant resources. The unique geography, climate, and vegetation conditions make Xiaoqinling an ideal location to research forest communities. Few studies exist about the number of forest community types and species diversity along an altitudinal gradient in Xiaoqinling. However, in recent years, due to population pressures and large-scale economic development there have been declines in biodiversity in protected areas. We conducted a field investigation of 56 plots (20 m×20 m) in Xiaoqinling. The main site factors, forest communities were classified through ordination and species diversity patterns along the altitudinal gradient were analyzed using multivariate regression trees (MRT), detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), and generalized additive model (GAM). Results showed that, (1) forest communities were classified into 5 types by MRT. Ⅰ: Euptelea pleiospermum-Acer grosseri-Glechoma longituba + Poa acroleuca Association, Ⅱ: Pinus armandii + Betula utilis-Salix phylicifolia-Carex siderosticta Association, Ⅲ: Quercus mongolica-Rosa bella-Cayerus compressus Association, Ⅳ: Pinus armandii + Quercus baronii var. baronii + Cotinus coggygria-Forsythia suspensa-Cayerus compressus Association, Ⅴ: Pinus armandii + Pinus tabulaeformis-Acer grosseri-Oplismenus undulatifolius Association; (2) the results of DCA clearly reflected the distribution range of various community types and better reflect relationships between species distribution and environmental factors; (3) GAM simulation results show that along an altitudinal gradient woody have clearer distribution patterns than herbs. Richness index in the tree layer showed a significant unimodal distribution pattern, the shrub layer showed a downward trend in mid-elevation and herbceous layer showed a downward trend with increasing altitude. The Shannon-Wiener index showed the same trends as the richness index. The Pielou index of three-layer distribution showed little variation with increasing altitude. Forest community structure and vertical pattern of species diversity vary with altitude gradient have important significance to reveal biodiversity environment gradient variation rule. The results help to deeply understand the space distribution pattern of forest community and ecological characteristics of species and for the future provide the corresponding theoretical basis for management and protection, as well as to elucidate mountain flora distribution and diversity of vertical distribution pattern to accumulate basic data.
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