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齐相贞,林振山,刘会玉.竞争和景观格局相互作用对外来入侵物种传播影响的动态模拟.生态学报,2016,36(3):569~579 本文二维码信息
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竞争和景观格局相互作用对外来入侵物种传播影响的动态模拟
Dynamic modeling of the interactive effects of competition and landscape patterns on the spread of exotic species
投稿时间:2014-03-31  修订日期:2015-10-23
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201403310600
关键词竞争  景观格局  传播  动态模拟
Key Wordscompetition  landscape patterns  spread  dynamic modeling
基金项目国家自然科学基金项目(40901034, 31470519); 江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目(164320H101)
作者单位E-mail
齐相贞 南京师范大学地理科学学院, 南京 210023;江苏省环境演变与生态建设重点实验室, 南京 210023  
林振山 南京师范大学地理科学学院, 南京 210023;江苏省环境演变与生态建设重点实验室, 南京 210023 linzhenshan@njnu.edu.cn 
刘会玉 南京师范大学地理科学学院, 南京 210023;江苏省环境演变与生态建设重点实验室, 南京 210023  
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摘要:
通过中性景观模型和元胞自动机模型模拟了不同景观格局、不同竞争力和关键种群特征的外来入侵物种的传播动态,模拟结果表明:(1)竞争力强的外来入侵物种,可利用生境面积越大,集聚度越高,越有利于其入侵和传播,而对竞争力弱的外来入侵物种来说,可利用生境面积越小,越分散,越有利于其生存。竞争力强可以有效利用整块的高集聚度的资源,而弱竞争力的外来入侵物种为了逃避土著种的竞争往往趋向于分布在分散的小生境中;(2)可利用生境面积大于50% 时,景观格局集聚度越小,竞争力弱的外来入侵物种适应环境的弛豫时间越长;(3)外来入侵物种的传播与种子产量呈正相关关系,与繁殖年龄呈负相关关系,拟合关系因景观格局和竞争而异;(4)平均迁移距离对外来入侵物种传播的影响最大,在管理过程中应根据不同的目标,不同的景观格局、竞争力和种群特征选择合适的管理措施。
Abstract:
Invasive exotic species are increasingly recognized as important drivers of ecological change. Understanding the persistence and growth of natural populations in environments prone to disturbance is very important for both conservation of threatened species and control of invasive species. In this study, neutral landscape and spatially explicit cellular automata models are employed to numerically analyze the interactive effects of key demographic traits, competitive abilities, and landscape patterns on the spread dynamics of exotic species. Available habitat was shown to be of great importance in spread dynamics and mediating the effects of landscape structure. For ‘strong’ invasive species, spread and invasion are facilitated by large areas of highly clumped available habitat. In contrast, for ‘weak’ alien species, scattered small patches of habitat facilitate survival. Strong competitors can efficiently exploit the massive clumps of resources, while poor competitors tend to occupy disrupted niches. Aggregation is another critical factor affecting exotic species invasions, especially for weak nonnative competitors. Exotic species abundance increased quickly in the first two years, before plateauing for 2-3 years, after which it decreased rapidly. In a scenario where more than 50% of the habitat is available, the lower habitat aggregation leads to longer lag times in which weak exotic species adapt to the new environment. The spread of invasive exotic species was positively related to fecundity and negatively related to reproductive age. The best fitting curve for this relationship varies with landscape patterns and competitive ability. For strong competitors, spread is generally logarithmically related to fecundity or reproductive age, but in some cases, quadratic polynomial relationship can provide a better fit. For poor competitors, the relationships among exotic species spread, fecundity and reproductive age are complex. Mean dispersal distance is the key determinant of the spread of exotic species. Compared to the gradual increase in strong exotic species, mean dispersal distance has a greater effect on the spread of weak exotic species. The abundance of inferior competitors rapidly increased as mean dispersal distance increased. Preventing invasive alien plants from reaching new areas should be the most cost effective means of control. In general, two methods can be applied, targeting demographic traits such as fecundity, reproduction, and survival, or managing landscape structure, such as corridors for spread. However, increasing landscape fragmentation will not be an effective method for controlling invasion by weak exotic species. According to our simulation results, habitat conservation needs to be tailored to each specific situation. For example, the abundance of weak exotic species increases when landscape aggregation, fecundity, and mean dispersal distance decrease. Therefore, management strategies should be modified to suit different targets with different competitive and demographic characteristics, and specific landscape scenarios. In this study, we only considered the spread dynamics of invasive species with short-distance dispersal. Further studies on the effect of long-distance dispersal on the invasion and spread of exotic species are required.
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