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赵海龙,陈新军,方学燕.基于栖息地指数的东太平洋黄鳍金枪鱼渔场预报.生态学报,2016,36(3):778~785 本文二维码信息
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基于栖息地指数的东太平洋黄鳍金枪鱼渔场预报
Forecasting fishing ground of Yellowfin tuna in the Eastern Pacific Ocean based on the habitat suitability index
投稿时间:2014-05-13  修订日期:2015-10-19
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201405130975
关键词黄鳍金枪鱼  渔情预报  东太平洋  栖息地指数  海洋环境因子
Key WordsThunnus albacares  fishing ground forecasting  eastern pacific  habitat suitability index  environmental data
基金项目国家863计划(2012AA092303); 国家发改委产业化专项(2159999); 上海市科技创新行动计划(12231203900)
作者单位E-mail
赵海龙 上海海洋大学海洋科学学院, 上海 201306;远洋渔业协同创新中心, 上海 201306  
陈新军 上海海洋大学海洋科学学院, 上海 201306;国家远洋渔业工程技术研究中心, 上海 201306;上海海洋大学大洋渔业可持续开发省部共建教育部重点实验室, 上海 201306;远洋渔业协同创新中心, 上海 201306 xjchen@shou.edu.cn 
方学燕 上海海洋大学海洋科学学院, 上海 201306;远洋渔业协同创新中心, 上海 201306  
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摘要:
黄鳍金枪鱼是东太平洋海域重要的金枪鱼种类之一,也是我国金枪鱼延绳钓的主要捕捞对象之一。根据2011年东太平洋海域(20°N-35°S、85°W-155°W)延绳钓生产统计数据,结合表温(SST)和海面高度(SSH)的遥感数据,采用频次分析法获得黄鳍金枪鱼分布的SST和SSH适宜范围;运用一元非线性回归方法,以渔获量为适应性指数,按季度分别建立了基于SST和SSH的长鳍金枪鱼栖息地适应性指数,采用算术平均法获得基于SST和SSH环境因子的栖息地指数综合模型,并用2012年各月实际作业渔场进行验证。结果显示,黄鳍金枪鱼渔场多分布在SST为24-29℃、SSH为0.3-0.7 m的海域。采用一元非线性回归建立的各因子适应性指数模型在统计上均为显著(P < 0.05)。经与2012年实际生产情况比较,作业渔场预报准确性达66%以上。研究获得栖息地指数模型可为金枪鱼延绳钓渔船寻找中心渔场提供参考。
Abstract:
Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, is a species of tuna found in the eastern Pacific Ocean, and has been one of the main targets of purse seine and longline fisheries since the 1970s. Chinese longline tuna fleets started to capture this species in 1999. According to the catch statistics from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), during the period between 2008 and 2012, the annual catch of T. albacares ranged from 185 000 t to 260 000 t with an average of 213 000 t. The formation of T. albacares fishing grounds is considered to be complicated, and may be affected by many environmental factors. Many methods have been used to predict the location of fishing grounds. These include habitat suitability index (HSI), which is generally used to describe the quality of fish habitat, but recently has been applied to predict the location of fishing grounds. HSI models can be also used to inform fishery management and fish conservation. In this study, a HSI model was developed to predict the locations of T. albacares fishing grounds in the eastern Pacific using sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) as explanatory environmental variables. The suitable ranges of SST and SSH were estimated using the frequency analysis method. Catch data for T. albacares were used as a suitability index, and quarterly suitability curves based on SST and SSH were derived using non-linear regression. Catch data were obtained from the Chinese longline fishery operating in the eastern Pacific Ocean (20°N-30°S and 85°W-155°W) in 2011. The spatial resolution of catch and environmental data is 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude, and data were recorded monthly. The HSI model was set up using an arithmetic mean model (AMM). The model was validated using separate a data set (2012 catch data from the same area). The T. albacares fishing grounds were mainly located in the waters with SST 24-29°C and SSH 0.3-0.7 m. The suitability index model for each factor (SST and SSH) was significant (P < 0.05). The accuracy with which fishing grounds were predicted for each quarter in 2012 varied from 60% to 71%, with an average of 66%. The actual T. albacares fishing grounds were almost all located in the forecast areas in all months. The HIS forecasting model developed in this study could provide valuable information for finding T. albacares fishing grounds in the eastern Pacific Ocean. However, in order to better forecast T. albacares fishing grounds using HIS models, more environmental factors should be included in the model, such as water temperature structure, sea front, Chlorophyll-a, and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index.
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