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许开鹏,王晶晶,迟妍妍,刘敏,鲁海杰.基于综合生态风险的云贵高原土地利用优化与持续利用对策.生态学报,2016,36(3):821~827 本文二维码信息
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基于综合生态风险的云贵高原土地利用优化与持续利用对策
Spatial optimization and sustainable use of land based on an integrated ecological risk in the Yun-Gui plateau region
投稿时间:2014-05-14  修订日期:2015-10-23
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201405140987
关键词综合生态风险  土地利用  云贵高原地区  空间叠置
Key Wordsintegrated ecological risk  land use  Yun-Gui plateau region  spatial overlay
基金项目国家环境保护公益性行业科研专项(2012467044, 201309063); 西部大开发重点区域和行业发展战略环境评价
作者单位E-mail
许开鹏 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012 xukp@caep.org.cn 
王晶晶 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
迟妍妍 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
刘敏 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
鲁海杰 环境保护部环境规划院, 北京 100012  
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摘要:
以云贵高原地区为研究对象,综合考虑区域自然特征、生态背景和社会经济发展状况,建立了以自然灾害、人为活动、生态敏感性和生态服务功能重要性为主要风险因子的综合生态风险评价指标体系与模型,并计算出云贵高原地区土地开发利用综合生态风险指数。通过与DEM和土地利用类型数据进行空间叠置分析,最终得到云贵高原地区实际可利用土地面积约为3586 km2,不足该地区国土面积的1%,主要分布在楚雄、红河、曲靖、昆明、黔南等地。为确保区域土地资源的可持续利用,提出对策建议:(1)要转变粗放、低效的用地方式,节约集约利用坝区可开发用地;(2)要及时转变城乡建设用地方式,因地制宜的推动工业项目、城镇建设向山坡、丘陵发展;(3)要加强可开发利用地区生态保护与建设,在推进低丘缓坡荒滩等未利用土地的开发利用过程中,将地质灾害和水土流失防治、生态环境保护置于优先地位,制定防治措施。通过云贵高原地区的案例研究,提出了综合生态风险评价的方法,为基于生态风险的土地利用格局优化提供了技术借鉴。
Abstract:
Spatial optimization of land use is essential to achieve systematic utilization of land resources and sustainable development of the environment and economy. Due to inappropriate land and resource development, and ecological damage resulting from urbanization and industrialization, spatial optimization of land use must take account of ecological constraints. Here, we present an analysis of the Yun-Gui plateau region, which is important because of a shortage of utilizable land and extremely complicated ecological and environmental problems. It illustrates that poorly considered land use decisions will lead to ecological problems. We examined the natural features, ecological background, and socioeconomic development of the Yun-Gui plateau region in order to create an integrated ecological risk evaluation system and model of the major risk factors, including natural disasters, human activity, ecological sensitivity, and critical ecological functions. Additionally, the evaluation system made it possible to perform a comprehensive ecological risk evaluation of land development in the Yun-Gui plateau region.Utilizable land was defined as that with an inclination less than 8°, that accounts to a total area of over 8 km2, which is termed the Yun-Gui flatland. A spatial overlay analysis indicated that 21.52% of the area was at high risk, 63.51% at medium risk, and 14.97% at low risk. The high-risk area was mainly in the south of Zhunyi and northeast of Bijie in Guizhou Province. The medium-risk area was concentrated in the south of Guizhou Province, Xishuangbanna, the local area in the south of Puer, and in the valley area of western Yunnan. By contrast, the low-risk area was distributed mostly in the east of west Guizhou and the central eastern region of Yunnan Province. This study focused on bare land with little vegetation, which was regarded as a suitable land for development according to ecological and agricultural criteria. The area of utilizable land was about 3,586 km2 of the Yun-Gui flatland, less than 1% of the region's land area. This was mainly located in Chuxiong, Honghe, Qujing, Kunming, and southern Guizhou. In order to ensure the sustainable use of regional land resources, we propose the following recommendations:(1) change the extensive and inefficient use of land to promote the economical and intensive use of flatland; (2) promote industrial projects and urban construction on hillsides according to local conditions; and (3) strengthen ecological and environmental protection while promoting the development and utilization of gently sloping wasteland and avoiding geological disasters with erosion control. This case study on the Yun-Gui plateau region presents an integrated ecological risk assessment method and provides a technical reference for the optimization of land use.
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