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赵玉泽,曹婉露,余进,王秦韵,徐基良,溪波.基于红外相机技术的白冠长尾雉集群行为研究.生态学报,2016,36(9):2513~2520 本文二维码信息
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基于红外相机技术的白冠长尾雉集群行为研究
Flocking behavior analysis of reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) using infrared cameras
投稿时间:2014-11-24  修订日期:2016-02-03
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201411242338
关键词白冠长尾雉  集群行为  相机陷阱
Key Wordsreeves's pheasant  rlocking behavior  ramera trapping
基金项目林业公益性行业科研专项(201404422);国家自然科学基金项目(31172115)
作者单位E-mail
赵玉泽 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083  
曹婉露 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083  
余进 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083  
王秦韵 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083  
徐基良 北京林业大学自然保护区学院, 北京 100083 xujiliang@bjfu.edu.cn 
溪波 河南董寨国家级自然保护区, 河南 464236  
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摘要:
白冠长尾雉(Syrmaticus reevesii)生性机警,行为隐蔽,在野外研究其集群行为较为困难。红外相机技术为解决这一问题提供了有益的工具。为研究白冠长尾雉集群行为及其地理变异,采用红外相机技术在湖北广水平靖关村和河南董寨自然保护区两个地点对其集群行为进行了调查。依据前期无线电遥测的结果,在两个研究地点分别设置了1km×1km的样地,在样地中分别放置了25台红外相机进行监测,野外累计放置了12412个相机日,获得视频24374段,其中有白冠长尾雉的视频有1361段。以有集群行为的独立视频数量(m)与独立视频数量(M)的比表示集群率,以拍摄到的白冠长尾雉个体数量(n)与有集群行为的独立视频数量(m)的比代表集群强度。结果表明,平靖关和董寨两地均是数量为2只的群体占比最大,在平靖关和董寨分别占68.23%、72.79%,Pearson卡方检验的结果表明群体大小在两地之间无显著差异(Pearson χ2=6.522 ,df=5,P=0.259),而集群方式在两地之间则差异显著(Pearson χ2=46.415 ,df=4,P < 0.001),两地均以单性集群为主要集群方式。单因素方差分析结果表明,集群率在季节间差异不明显。Neu方法分析发现,在平靖关,白冠长尾雉对灌丛和竹林显著偏好,对针阔混交林、杉木林和乔灌丛显著回避;而在董寨,其对针阔混交林和针叶林明显偏好,对杉木林和阔叶林明显回避。
Abstract:
The flocking behavior of animals has long been an important topic in wildlife research. Such information should be helpful to develop a comprehensive understanding of the natural ecology and biology of wildlife, including pheasant species, which should be beneficial to protecting pheasants in the wild. However, some species of pheasants are naturally vigilant with concealed behaviors, making it rather difficult to conduct field studies on their flocking behavior. One such pheasant species is Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii), and sparse quantitative information on its flocking behavior in the field has been collected to date. In order to survey the flocking behavior and its geographic variation of Reeves's pheasant, we used camera trapping to monitor the flocking behavior at two sites: Pingjingguan Village, Hubei Province and Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan Province. These infrared cameras were set up in the field from March 2013 to March 2014, which provided an opportunity to understand the annual rhythm of flocking behavior of this pheasant at these two sites. Based on the results of radiotracking studies previously conducted at the same study sites, we established a 1 ×1km plot in each site, and then placed 25 infrared cameras in each plot. The working days of all cameras added up to 12412 days, and we obtained 24374 video clips in the field from these cameras. In particular, a total of 1361 of these clips captured Reeves's pheasant, including 525 clips and 836 clips in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve and Pingjingguan Village, respectively. We determined the ratio of the numbers of individual clips showing flocking behavior of the pheasant (m) to the total number of clips (M), and the ratio of the number of pheasants captured by the clips (n) to the total number of clips showing pheasant flocking behavior (m). Our results showed that a flock with two individuals occupied the largest portion of all flocks at these two sites, accounting for 68.23% and 72.79% of the total in Pingjingguan Village and Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, respectively. Three types of flocks, i.e. only-males, only-females, and mixed males-females, occurred in these two sites, and single-sex flocks dominated the flocks in the field, whereas the mixed male-female flocks accounted for only a small portion of the total flocks. In particular, Pearson's chi-squared test showed that there were no significant differences in the numbers of flocks between the two sites, whereas a significant difference was found in flocking types between the two sites. Moreover, the encounter rate of only-female flocks in Pingjingguan Village was higher in summer and autumn, and that of only-male flocks was higher in spring and autumn. Similarly, the only-female flocks in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve appeared occasionally in summer and autumn, and only-male flocks mainly appeared in spring. In addition, the flocking intensity of the whole year reached the peak in the non-breeding period at both study sites. On the other hand, the lowest flocking intensity at Pingjingguan and Dongzhai National Nature Reserve occurred in the breeding period and at the early stage of the breeding period, respectively. In the breeding period, these two study sites showed similar flocking intensities. The peak of the flocking rate of this pheasant in Dongzhai and Pingjingguan occurred in winter and the early stage of the breeding period, respectively. Reeves's pheasant showed a highly significant preference for shrub and bamboo, while avoiding broadleaf mixed forests, fir, and arbor in Pingjingguan Village. It had a highly significant preference for theropencedrymion and coniferous forests, while avoiding fir and broadleaf forests in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve.
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