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沈园,谭立波,单鹏,曹慧明,邓红兵.松花江流域沿江重点监控企业水环境潜在污染风险分析.生态学报,2016,36(9):2732~2739 本文二维码信息
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松花江流域沿江重点监控企业水环境潜在污染风险分析
Analysis of the potential contamination risk of riverside key monitored enterprises on the aquatic environment of the Songhua River Basin
投稿时间:2014-12-04  修订日期:2016-01-30
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201412042408
关键词工业废水  突发性水污染  复合生态系统  松花江流域
Key Wordsindustrial wastewater  sudden water pollution accidents  social-economic-natural complex ecosystem  the Songhua River Basin
基金项目吉林省引进高层次创新人才计划;全国生态环境十年变化(2000-2010年)遥感调查与评估项目(STSN-13-06)
作者单位E-mail
沈园 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
谭立波 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
单鹏 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
曹慧明 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085 hmc1983@126.com 
邓红兵 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085  
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摘要:
为防控松花江流域水污染风险、优化流域内沿江产业带布局,分析了松花江流域沿江企业潜在污染风险的大小和分布,并揭示导致不同区域间水环境潜在污染风险空间差异的原因。基于《2012年废水国家重点监控企业名单》,本研究将沿松花江(到三级支流)1km范围内的45家重点废水产生企业识别为松花江流域水环境潜在污染风险源。以沿江企业和重点区域的废水产生量与对应河段的水质状况表征水环境潜在污染风险源强弱与流域水体对潜在污染风险的缓冲能力,并以区域总人口数、第二产业产值及珍稀濒危物种分布情况反映流域社会-经济-自然复合生态系统对潜在污染风险的敏感程度开展评价。结果表明:牡丹江市辖区(牡丹江中游河段)因潜在污染风险源强、水体对潜在污染风险的缓冲能力低且自然生态系统对潜在污染风险的敏感程度高,是松花江流域受沿江企业产生的水环境潜在污染风险最严重的地区;长春市辖区(饮马河、伊通河部分河段)、伊春市辖区(汤旺河全部河段)与敦化市(海浪河全部河段、牡丹江部分河段)由于较低的水体缓冲能力和较高的生态系统敏感程度,应加强水环境潜在污染风险的防治;污染风险源强的吉林市辖区(西流松花江部分河段)与七台河市辖区(倭肯河部分河段),须提高本区域对潜在污染的风险管理能力以降低污染事故发生的可能性。最后,针对不同行业类型、区域潜在污染特点与水污染风险特征,从加快污水处理研究、评估污染治理经济手段、建立产业准入机制及完善污染防治立法等多方面提出流域水环境污染风险管控的相关建议。
Abstract:
The Songhua River Basin (SRB) is located in the northern part of Northeast China, and includes the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Jilin Province, and Heilongjiang Province. The SRB is also known as the Northeast Old Industrial Base and has a reputation for industrial production, which had some negative impacts on the aquatic environment of the Songhua River. Research on the levels and patterns of the aquatic contamination risk posed by the riverside enterprises in the SRB are valuable for controlling water contamination risk and optimizing the riverside industrial layout. Thus, it is essential to investigate the industrial enterprises generating wastewater in the basin and to estimate their risk of contaminating the aquatic environment. Based on theList of National Key Monitored Enterprises Generating Wastewater in 2012, we identified 45 key enterprises distributed within 1 km of the river banks, as potential sources of contamination. We assessed the risk level of these sources by calculating the annual volume of wastewater generated by the enterprises and estimated the buffering capacity of the local waters by analyzing the background water quality. We also evaluated the sensitivity of the social-economic-natural complex ecosystem to potential water contamination by investigating the total population of the districts, the secondary industrial outputs of the districts, and the distribution ranges of rare and endangered species. The results showed that Mudanjiang City (with the middle reaches of the Mudan River) suffered the most serious contamination risk because of the large volume of wastewater generated annually, the low buffering capacity of the local waters, and the high sensitivity of the natural ecosystem to potential water contamination. Changchun City (with part of the reaches of the Yinma and Yitong Rivers), Yichun City (with all reaches of the Tangwang River) and Dunhua City (with all reaches of the Hailang River, and part of the reaches of the Mudan River) showed the low buffering capacity and the high sensitivity, and thus risk prevention should be strengthened in these districts. In addition, owing to the large volume of wastewater generated annually, Jilin City (with part of the reaches of the West-flowing Songhua River) and Qitaihe City (with part of the reaches of the Woken River), particularly the former with the higher sensitivity of its social and economic ecosystems, should improve the capacity of risk management to reduce the possibility of water contamination in these districts. This study analyzed the levels and patterns of potential water contamination risk, and revealed the causes of spatial differences in the risk of aquatic environment contamination among riverside areas in the SRB. Moreover, it provided a reference for development of riverside industrial zones, prevention and emergency response to sudden water pollution accidents, and long-term risk management of water pollution. In the short term, the key riverside enterprises should improve the efficiency of their wastewater treatment and effectively control the risk of pollution. In the long term, it is important to accelerate the adjustment of the industrial layout and to improve legislation for pollution prevention and control.
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