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王丽,王保栋,陈求稳,汤新武,韩瑞.三峡三期蓄水后长江口海域浮游动物群落特征及影响因子.生态学报,2016,36(9):2505~2512 本文二维码信息
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三峡三期蓄水后长江口海域浮游动物群落特征及影响因子
Characteristics of the zooplankton community and impactfactors in the Yangtze estuary coastal eara after third stage impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam
投稿时间:2014-12-06  修订日期:2016-01-31
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201412062423
关键词浮游动物  长江口  三峡工程  环境因子
Key Wordszooplankton  Yangtze estuary  Three Gorges Dam  hydro-environmental factors
基金项目国家杰出青年科学基金(51425902);国家重点基础研究发展(973)计划项目(2010CB429004)
作者单位E-mail
王丽 南京水利科学研究院生态环境研究中心, 南京 210024  
王保栋 国家海洋局第一海洋研究所, 青岛 266061  
陈求稳 南京水利科学研究院生态环境研究中心, 南京 210024 qwchen@nhri.cn 
汤新武 三峡大学, 宜昌 443002  
韩瑞 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085  
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摘要:
根据2010年8月、11月以及2011年5月3个航次、各次24个监测点的调查数据,分析了三峡工程三期蓄水后一个水文年内长江口浮游动物优势种、湿重生物量及丰度的变化,并用BIOENV筛选出影响浮游动物分布的关键环境因子。结果表明:长江口浮游动物春季绝对优势种为夜光虫(Noctiluca scientillans)与中华哲水蚤(Calanus sinicus),夏季绝对优势种为太平洋纺锤水蚤(Acartia pacifica steuer),秋季绝对优势种为针刺拟哲水蚤(Paracalanus aculeatus);浮游动物湿重生物量夏季(970.6mg/m3)>秋季(613.8mg/m3)>春季(571.5mg/m3),丰度夏季(783.5个/m3)>春季(691.3个/m3)>秋季(399.5个/m3);影响浮游动物分布的关键环境因子为底层盐度、底层温度及底层硅酸盐。
Abstract:
The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is the largest hydropower project ever built in China and worldwide. In 2010, the TGD reached the designed water level of 175 m, storing approximately 39.3 billion cubic meters of water. Impoundment of the TGD has changed the hydrological and sedimental regimes downstream, which inevitably affected the estuarine ecosystem. Therefore, a comprehensive survey and assessment after the impoundment at 175 m would be helpful for establishing benchmark values for future analyses. Community variations in zooplankton, which are at the middle level of the food chain in aquatic ecosystems, can reflect environmental changes. Therefore, this study investigated the spatial distribution of the zooplankton community and the relationships between zooplankton and environmental factors through biota-environment matching (BIOENV) based on a hydro-environmental and biological survey of the Yangtze estuary in August and November of 2010 and May of 2011. Noctiluca scientillans and Calanus sinicus were the predominant species in spring, and Acartia pacifica steuer and Paracalanus aculeatus were the predominant species in summer and autumn, respectively. The spatially averaged seasonal biomass of zooplankton was highest in summer (970.6 mg/m3), followed by autumn (613.8 mg/m3) and spring (571.5 mg/m3). Similarly, the spatially averaged seasonal abundance of zooplankton was highest in summer (783.5 individuals/m3), followed by spring (691.3 individuals/m3) and autumn (399.5 individuals/m3). Interestingly, the spatial distribution patterns of zooplankton biomass and abundance were consistent in the summer, but not the spring and autumn. The major environmental factors explaining the observed variations in the zooplankton community were temperature in the middle layer, salinity, and silicate (Si) concentrations of the bottom layer in the spring; salinity, Si, and total dissolved nitrogen of the middle layer in the summer; and temperature of bottom layer, suspended solids in the surface layer, and Si of the middle layer in autumn. The primary environmental factor affecting the zooplankton community was salinity of the bottom layer throughout the year; temperature was the second most important factor. In summary, the zooplankton community in the Yangtze estuary appeared to be changing due to variations in the hydrological regime and water quality. Long-term observations of zooplankton are required to determine species adaptability and time-lag responses to environmental changes.
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