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陈成忠,葛绪广,孙琳,邵冬,柯文莉.物种急剧丧失·生态严重超载·跨越“地球边界”·区域公平失衡·“一个地球”生活——《地球生命力报告2014》解读.生态学报,2016,36(9):2779~2785 本文二维码信息
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物种急剧丧失·生态严重超载·跨越“地球边界”·区域公平失衡·“一个地球”生活——《地球生命力报告2014》解读
Rapid species loss, severe ecological overshoot, crossed planetary boundaries, unfair regional consumption, one planet living: Main results of the Living Planet Report 2014
投稿时间:2015-01-25  修订日期:2016-01-30
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201501250196
关键词地球生命力指数  生态足迹  地球边界  一个地球生活
Key Wordsliving planet index (LPI)  ecological footprint (EF)  planetary boundaries  one planet living
基金项目江苏省环境演变与生态建设重点实验室2014开放基金(201401);资源枯竭城市转型与发展研究中心开放基金(Kf2013y08)(湖北省人文社科重点研究基地)
作者单位E-mail
陈成忠 湖北师范学院城市与环境学院, 黄石 435002 chenchengzhongbu@163.com 
葛绪广 湖北师范学院城市与环境学院, 黄石 435002  
孙琳 湖北师范学院城市与环境学院, 黄石 435002  
邵冬 湖北师范学院城市与环境学院, 黄石 435002  
柯文莉 湖北师范学院城市与环境学院, 黄石 435002  
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摘要:
2014年9月30日,世界自然基金会(WWF)、Zoological Society of London(ZSL)、Global Footprint Network、Water Footprint Network联合发布《地球生命力报告2014》,除了以前主要使用的地球生命力指数(Living Planet Index,LPI)、生态足迹(Ecological Footprint, EF)、水足迹(Water Footprint)等指标外,首次使用"地球边界"揭示地球面临的严峻挑战。报告显示:(1)LPI自1970年以来已下降52%,温带和热带地区分别下降36%、56%,陆生和海洋物种均下降39%,淡水物种减少76%;(2)1961年全球生态足迹76亿全球公顷(global hectare, ghm2)、生物承载力99亿ghm2、生态盈余23亿ghm2,2010年全球生态足迹为181亿ghm2、生物承载力120亿ghm2、生态赤字61亿ghm2,1961年碳足迹占人类总生态足迹的36%,2010年碳足迹占比为53%;(3)全球生产水足迹排名中,印度、美国、中国、巴西和俄罗斯以大量的绿水足迹位居前五名;全球200多个河流流域、26亿7千万人每年至少1个月严重缺水;(4)生物多样性丧失、气候变化和氮循环3个"地球边界"被打破,并且已经对人类健康及人类所需要的食物、水和能源产生明显影响;(5)高收入国家将生物多样性丧失及其影响转嫁给低收入国家,这是另一种资源进口方式;大多数高收入国家人均生态足迹均已超过地球上人均可获得的生物承载力,依靠进口其他国家的生物承载力弥补超载;低收入国家生态足迹最小,生态系统却遭受最大破坏,高收入国家较高的人类发展水平是以高生态足迹为代价。报告指出人类对生态系统和生态功能的过度索取,正在危害着人类未来的安康、经济、食物安全、社会稳定乃至生存,特别提到当前人类所作选择和所采取措施的重要性。确保有恢复力、健康的生态环境维持人类繁荣发展,比现在人口增长、资源消耗增加、气候变化和生态退化的警钟更具挑战性。整篇报告可以概括为5个主题:物种急剧丧失、生态严重超载、跨越"地球边界"、区域公平失衡、"一个地球"生活。
Abstract:
Living Planet Report 2014 was issued in September 2014 by World Wide Fund for Nature, Zoological Society of London, Global Footprint Network and Water Footprint Network. The indicator of “planetary boundaries” is analyzed that we are in danger of crashing Earth’s life-support systems besides living planet index (LPI), ecological footprint and water footprint. The latest data available (for 2010) indicate that the LPI has declined by 52 per cent since 1970. The temperate LPI declined by 36 per cent, and the tropical LPI shows a 56 per cent reduction over the same period. The terrestrial LPI and marine LPI had declined by 39 per cent, and the LPI for freshwater species shows an average decline of 76 per cent between 1970 and 2010. In 1961, global ecological footprint was 7.6 billion global hectare (gha), earth’s total biocapacity 9.9 billion gha, and ecological reserve 2.3 billion gha. In 2010, global ecological footprint was 18.1 billion gha, earth’s total biocapacity 12 billion gha, ecological deficit 6.1 billion gha. In 1961, carbon was 36% of our total Footprint, but by 2010, it comprised 53%. The 5 largest water footprints of production for the countries in the world are India, USA, China, Brazil and Russia. Stress on blue water resources is calculated on a monthly basis with more than 200 river basins, home to some 2.67 billion people, already experiencing severe water scarcity for at least one month every year. The nine identified boundaries are climate change, ocean acidification, biodiversity loss, interference with the global nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, ozone depletion, global fresh water use, land system change, atmospheric aerosol loading, and chemical pollution. We have already overstepped three (biodiversity loss, climate change, and the nitrogen cycle) of the nine planetary boundaries. The LPI of high-income countries appear to show an increase, middle-income and low-income countries show marked decline. They may reflect the way these countries import resources-effectively outsourcing biodiversity loss and its impacts to lower-income countries. High-income countries often rely on the biocapacity of other nations or the global commons to meet their consumption demands. The high human development in developed countries has been achieved at the expense of a high ecological footprint. Low-income countries should to significantly increase their IHDI without significantly increasing their ecological footprint and for countries with high IHDI to reduce their footprints. Five topics can be concluded based on the Living Planet Report 2014.There are rapid species loss, severe ecological overshoot, crossed planetary boundaries, unfair regional consumption, and one planet living.
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