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陈晓舒,赵同谦,李聪,郑华.基于不同利益相关者的水电能源基地建设经济损益研究——以澜沧江干流为例.生态学报,2017,37(13):4495~4504 本文二维码信息
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基于不同利益相关者的水电能源基地建设经济损益研究——以澜沧江干流为例
Economic cost-benefit analysis of a hydropower development project based on different stakeholders:A case study of Lancang River, China
投稿时间:2015-04-10  修订日期:2017-01-09
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201504100725
关键词澜沧江  水电开发  利益相关者  生态系统服务功能  经济损益分析
Key WordsLancang River  hydropower development  stakeholder  ecosystem services  cost-benefit analysis
基金项目国家自然科学基金面上项目(71673219)
作者单位E-mail
陈晓舒 河南理工大学, 焦作 454000;中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
赵同谦 河南理工大学, 焦作 454000  
李聪 西安交通大学经济与金融学院, 西安 710061  
郑华 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 zhenghua@rcees.ac.cn 
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摘要:
水电开发将在局地、区域以及全球尺度上产生一系列的影响,明确这些尺度上利益相关者的成本效益、合理分配水电开发利益是减少水电开发不利影响、促进水电资源可持续利用的关键。以澜沧江干流水电能源基地建设为背景,从开发企业、移民农户、澜沧江流域政府及全球利益相关者4个利益相关者角度,选取经济、生态环境和移民生计指标对水电开发的利益再分配进行评估,结果显示:尽管水电开发总体效益大于成本,比例为4.27∶1,且水电开发所涉及的开发企业、政府流域及全球利益相关者所获得的利益大于成本,成本效益比例分别为1∶3.93、1∶3.10、1∶13.11;但移民农户成本却大于效益,比例为1.48∶1。水电开发企业等利益主体应增加生态补偿强度,才能确保移民农户的净收益不降低。该研究表明:不同利益相关者分析有助于了解成本效益分配,清晰展示利益流向,减少开发项目中的不利影响,结果可为协调水电能源开发利用与流域可持续发展提供科学依据。
Abstract:
Hydropower is one of most widely used means of energy generation. Although it is being increasingly adopted worldwide, the impacts of hydropower development vary at local, regional, and global scales. To reduce the negative effects and promote sustainability of hydropower development, it is essential to identify the costs and benefits of these projects, and to determine a reasonable distribution of profits among stakeholders. The costs and benefits of hydropower development for different stakeholders depend on the ecosystem services available to each of them. Ecological changes produce different opportunity costs for stakeholders in terms of their livelihood and development. Thus, cost-benefit analysis is a key tool for evaluating the sustainability of a hydropower construction project. Lancang River is a well-known international river that is rich in water resources. In China, it is an important energy base for the strategic objectives of the "Bonanza" and "West-East Gas Transmission" initiatives, with the Lancang River considered to have great developmental potential. Therefore, we selected the Lancang River central stream hydropower development project for the present study. Evaluation indexes were based on the availability of data and were utilized to assess the reallocation of hydropower development benefits among four stakeholders: enterprises, migrant farmers, local government, and global beneficiaries. An index system was established to reflect and compare the costs and benefits for the different stakeholders; data were converted into Chinese yuan for ease of comparison. Spending costs by enterprises included construction investment and operating costs, whereas the benefits mainly accrued from power generation. The costs for migrant farmers comprised relocation fees and income loss; benefits included resettlement subsidies and reduced spending on electricity use. For the local government, the main cost was the lost value of ecosystem services due to flooding, and, in addition to the environmental benefits and potential economic value of hydropower development, the benefits included land compensation paid by enterprises. The main cost for global beneficiaries was the lost value of ecosystem services, and the main benefit was the environmental value of alternative energy. The results of the cost-benefit analyses were as follows. In the construction of the hydropower development, the total cost to enterprises was 9.91 billion yuan/year, and the total benefit was 38.91 billion yuan/year. The cost for migrant farmers was 0.06 billion yuan/year, and the benefit was 0.04 billion yuan/year. The cost for local government was 0.74 billion yuan/year, and the benefit was 2.28 billion yuan/year. The cost for global beneficiaries was 0.51 billion yuan/year, while the benefit was 6.65 billion yuan/year. Therefore, the overall benefits of the project exceeded the overall costs in a 4.27 ∶ 1 ratio. The cost-benefit ratios for enterprises, local government, and global beneficiaries were 1 ∶ 3.93, 1 ∶ 3.10, and 1 ∶ 13.11, respectively; thus, the benefits of hydropower development exceeded the costs for these stakeholders. However, the costs exceeded the benefits for migrant farmers at a ratio of 1.48 ∶ 1. To maintain the farmers' net income, enterprises, local government, and global beneficiaries would need to increase the amount of eco-compensation paid. The results reveal that conducting separate cost-benefit analyses clarifies the effects as well as the flow of profits derived from such projects for different stakeholders, and can be utilized to reduce the negative impacts of hydropower developments.
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