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张宏锋,袁素芬.东江流域森林水源涵养功能空间格局评价.生态学报,2016,36(24):8120~8127 本文二维码信息
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东江流域森林水源涵养功能空间格局评价
Evaluation of the spatial patterns of the water retention function of the forest ecosystem in the Dongjiang River Watershed
投稿时间:2015-04-28  修订日期:2016-10-24
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201504280881
关键词森林生态系统  水源涵养功能  空间格局  东江流域
Key Wordsforest ecosystem  water retention function  spatial pattern  the Dongjiang River Watershed
基金项目国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2013ZX07603-003-003)
作者单位E-mail
张宏锋 广东省环境科学研究院, 广州 510045 zhanghf77925@sohu.com 
袁素芬 广东环境保护工程职业学院, 佛山 528216  
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摘要:
东江流域森林水源涵养功能对于保障流域可持续发展具有重要作用。应用InVEST模型,结合东江流域土地覆盖分类数据、气候数据、土壤数据评估了东江流域森林水源涵养功能的空间分布。结果表明:东江流域森林生态系统水源涵养总量为47.29×108 m3,水源涵养功能最高为572.6 mm,平均水源涵养功能为204.15 mm。东江流域森林水源涵养功能在空间上呈现出不同的分布特征,流域内森林水源涵养功能随海拔升高呈现先上升后降低的趋势,在海拔900-1200 m范围,水源涵养功能平均值达到最大值270 mm;流域内森林水源涵养功能随坡度升高呈增加趋势,在坡度大于50°的区域,森林水源涵养功能平均值增加到327.2 mm,高于流域平均水平60%。流域水源涵养功能呈现中游 > 下游 > 上游的空间格局,流域上、中、下游地区的水源涵养总量占流域的比例分别为11%、72%、17%。
Abstract:
The water retention function of the forest ecosystem refers to the redistribution of precipitation through the canopy, litter layer, and the layer of soil in the forest ecosystem, which can effectively affect water retention and runoff regulation. This function is influenced by various factors including the types of forest ecosystem, climatic conditions, soil physicochemical properties, and topography, and thus shows significant spatial heterogeneity. The Dongjiang River, one of the tributaries of the Pearl River, is the main drinking water resource serving more than 40 million residents from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the cities of the Guangdong province including Heyuan, Huizhou, Dongguan, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen. In recent years, with rapid population growth and economic development, the eco-environment of the Dongjiang River Watershed has been severely disturbed, which consequently has severely affected the water retention function of the forest ecosystem. In the present study, the spatial distribution of the water retention function of the forest ecosystem in the Dongjiang River Watershed was evaluated based on data on the land cover, climate, and soil, using the InVEST (Integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs tool) model. The results showed that the total water retention in the forest ecosystem of the Dongjiang River Watershed was 47.29×108 m3, with a peak value in the water retention function of 572.6 mm and a mean value of 204.15 mm. The water retention function of the forest ecosystem showed differences in spatial pattern with changes in elevation and slope. The water retention function increased initially, and then decreased with increasing elevation, with a peak mean value of 270 mm at an elevation of 900-1200 m. The water retention function of the forest ecosystem also increased with increasing slope, and reached 327.2 mm at a slope of 50, which was more than 60% of the average water retention function. At the watershed scale, the water retention function of the forest ecosystem in the middle reaches comprised the most important group, representing of 72% of total retention volume, followed by the lower reaches (17%) and upper reaches (11%). In the present study, analysis of the water retention function of the forest ecosystem in the Dongjiang River Watershed determined the boundary objects of ecological compensation, and defined the importance of ecosystem services in different geographical units. In addition, the priorities of ecological compensation were determined according to the level of importance of the ecosystem services in different geographical units, thereby improving the efficiency of ecological compensation and promoting the sustainable development of the watershed.
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