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罗怀良,闫宁.区域种植业气候适宜度及其对种植活动的响应——以四川省盐亭县为例.生态学报,2016,36(24):7981~7991 本文二维码信息
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区域种植业气候适宜度及其对种植活动的响应——以四川省盐亭县为例
Study on climatic suitability for planting and effect of crop planting activities on climatic suitability: a case study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province, China
投稿时间:2015-05-07  修订日期:2016-10-19
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201505070945
关键词作物  种植业  气候适宜度  种植活动  气候变化
Key Wordscrops  planting  climate suitability  crop planting activity  climatic change
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(41371125);四川省教育厅2013年度自然科学资助项目(13ZA0147)
作者单位E-mail
罗怀良 四川师范大学地理与资源科学学院, 西南土地资源评价与监测教育部重点实验室, 成都 610101 huaill@163.com 
闫宁 四川师范大学地理与资源科学学院, 西南土地资源评价与监测教育部重点实验室, 成都 610101  
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摘要:
在分析盐亭县近63年来(1950—2012)种植业生产发展的基础上,选取该县农村社会经济条件相对稳定的近32年(1981—2012)为研究时段。运用农业生态气候适宜度方法,依据水稻、红薯、玉米、小麦和油菜等5种主要作物生育期的光、热、水等气候条件,分别估算各种作物的资源适宜指数、效能适宜指数和利用指数,构建小尺度区域种植业气候适宜度模型和种植活动对区域种植业气候适宜度的影响度模型,进行小尺度区域种植业气候适宜度以及种植活动对种植业气候适宜度的影响度估算,并对种植业生产对气候变化的适应进行探讨。研究结果表明,(1)近32年来盐亭县大春作物的平均资源适宜指数、效能适宜指数和利用指数(分别为0.578、0.281和48.37%)均大于小春作物(分别为0.304、0.128和42.24%),大春作物的气候适宜度高于小春作物,且作物间的气候适宜度差异较大。(2)受季风气候波动的影响,该县作物气候适宜度有明显的年际波动;该县近32年来气候变化对大春作物气候适宜度有轻微不利影响,而对小春作物气候适宜度趋于有利。(3)盐亭县近32年来种植业平均的资源适宜指数为0.466、效能适宜指数为0.212、利用指数为45.49%;受5种作物资源适宜指数、效能适宜指数,以及作物播种面积与产量年际波动的综合影响,该县种植业气候适宜度亦有明显的年际波动;气候变化对该县种植业气候适宜度总体上有不利影响。(4)近32年来该县种植活动对种植业气候适宜度的影响度平均值为0.00092,其年际波动较大。通过作物种植组合结构的调整,在20世纪90年代中期前对种植业气候适宜度的提高有微弱的正向影响,对气候变化有一定程度的适应;而后期则有负向作用。
Abstract:
The analysis of crop planting development in Yanting County, Sichuan Province, China from 1950 to 2012 identified a period of relatively stable rural social and economic conditions in the last 32 years (1981-2012), which interval was selected as a research period. Five types of crops including rice, sweet potato, corn, wheat, and rape were chosen as research crops. Light, heat, precipitation, and other climate parameters were recorded during the growth period of these five crops to estimate resource suitability indices, effective suitability indices, and utilization indices for these crops using a method of agro-climatic suitability. To establish a climatic suitability model for crop planting and an estimation model of the degree to which planting activities affect the planting climatic suitability in a small-scale region, the climatic suitability for planting and the impact of planting activities on climatic suitability for crop planting were estimated for Yanting County, and selected as a model for a small-scale region, in the last 32 years. The adaptations of regional crop planting activities on climate change were primarily discussed. The following results were obtained. (1) The average resource suitability index, effective suitability index, and utilization index for spring crops (0.578, 0.281, and 48.37%, respectively) were higher than those for autumn crops (0.304, 0.128, and 42.24%, respectively). Significant differences were observed among climatic suitability indices for the five main crops, and climatic suitability degree for spring crops was higher than that for fall crops. (2) Significant inter-annual fluctuations in the degree of crop climatic suitability in Yanting County were caused by the monsoon climate. There was an insignificant negative effect of climate change on the degree of climatic suitability for spring crops, and a limited positive effect on that for fall crops during the last 32 years. (3) The average resource suitability index, effective suitability index, and utilization index for crop planting in Yanting County over the last 32 years were 0.466, 0.212, and 45.49%, respectively. As a result of inter-annual fluctuation of the resource suitability index, effective suitability index, sowing area, and yield of the five crops, the degree of climatic suitability for crop planting fluctuated significantly in the county during the study period. Climate change had a negative effect on the degree of climatic suitability for planting. (4) The average degree to which crop planting activities affected the extent of climatic suitability for planting was 0.00092 in the study period and it was variable. Crop planting activities can alter the degree of climatic suitability for planting by adjusting the combination of planted crops. A slight positive impact of crop planting activities on the degree of climatic suitability for planting in the county was identified before the middle of the 1990s, indicating that there was a slight adaptation to climate change during this period. A negative influence of crop planting activities on the degree of climatic suitability for planting in the county was observed after the middle of the 1990s.
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