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彭舜磊,吕建华,陈昌东,齐光,赵干卿.宝天曼自然保护区主要森林类型自然度评价.生态学报,2016,36(24):8164~8173 本文二维码信息
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宝天曼自然保护区主要森林类型自然度评价
Naturalness assessment of the main forest types in the Baotianman National Nature Reserve
投稿时间:2015-05-08  最后修改时间:2016-11-17
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201505080947
关键词宝天曼自然保护区  自然度  植被特征  土壤质量  主成分分析  Ward 聚类
Key WordsBaotianman National Nature Reserve  naturalness  vegetation characteristics  soil quality  principal component analysis  Ward Cluster
基金项目中国博士后科学基金面上项目(2014M561043);河南省教育厅科学技术重点研究项目(14A180011);河南省科技攻关计划资助项目(14A180011,162102310247)
作者单位E-mail
彭舜磊 平顶山学院低山丘陵区生态修复重点实验室, 平顶山 467000;中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 生态系统网络观测与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101 pengshunlei@163.com 
吕建华 平顶山学院低山丘陵区生态修复重点实验室, 平顶山 467000  
陈昌东 平顶山学院低山丘陵区生态修复重点实验室, 平顶山 467000  
齐光 平顶山学院低山丘陵区生态修复重点实验室, 平顶山 467000  
赵干卿 平顶山学院低山丘陵区生态修复重点实验室, 平顶山 467000  
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摘要:
自然度评价对于自然保护区生物多样性保护和森林管理具有重要意义。以宝天曼自然保护区主要林型35个样地为研究对象,对27个群落指标进行主成分分析,计算自然度指数值(N),对N值进行Ward聚类,划分自然度等级。结果表明:宝天曼自然保护区主要林型的自然度可划分为5个等级组,自然度高的样地:N值在2.18—1.13之间,平均林龄94a,占调查样地总数的20.0%;自然度较高的样地:N值在1.01-0.34之间,占调查样地总数的34.3%,平均林龄80a;自然度中等的样地:N值在0.01— -0.47之间,占调查样地总数的17.1%,平均林龄为47a;自然度较低的样地:N值在-0.92— -1.60之间,占调查样地总数的14.3%,平均林龄为26a;自然度低的样地,N值在-1.98— -2.54之间,占调查样地总数的14.3%,平均林龄为21a。前3个主成分中土壤容重、有机质、全氮、硝态氮、林龄、优势树种平均胸径、乔木层、灌木层和草本层的多样性指数荷载较大,是影响森林自然度的主要因子。N值与林龄、乔木层和灌木层的Shannon-Wiener指数、海拔、土壤容重的线性拟合均达到极显著水平(P < 0.001),与土壤有机质和全氮的关系符合对数曲线(R2 > 0.794,R2=0.815,P < 0.0001)。在海拔1118-1863m区域,森林自然度较高,海拔970m以下区域,森林自然度较低。针对不同自然度等级的森林,分别提出了相应的保护和经营措施。
Abstract:
Assessment of forest naturalness plays an important role in biodiversity conservation and forest management. In the present study, we selected thirty-five plots from the main forest types, and investigated 30 indicators (three topographic indicators and 27 community indicators) in the Baotianman National Nature Reserve. Community indicators (27) were analyzed using the PCA method to determine forest naturalness index values (N). N values were clustered using the Ward cluster method, and naturalness classes were classified according to those cluster groups. The results showed that: the degrees of forest naturalness were divided into five grades: highest naturalness plots: with N values ranging from 2.18 to 1.13, an average stand age of 94a, and total plots accounting for 20.0%; higher naturalness plots: with N values ranging from 1.01 to 0.34, an average stand age of 80a, and total plots accounting for 34.3%; medium naturalness plots: with N values ranging from 0.01 to -0.47, an average stand age of 47a, and total plots accounting for 17.1%; lower naturalness plots: with N values ranging from -0.92 to -1.60, an average stand age of 26a, and total plots accounting for 14.3%; and lowest naturalness plots: with N values ranging from -1.98 to -2.54, an average stand age of 21a, and total plots accounting for of 14.3%. Among the first three principal components, soil bulk density, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, stand age, mean diameter at breast height (DBH) of the dominant trees, and diversity indices of the arbor, shrub, and herb layers were all greater than the other indicators, and were key factors that influenced forest naturalness. The N value was significantly negatively linear when fitted to soil bulk density (R2 = 0.763, P < 0.0001), and significantly positively linear when fitted to stand age, and Shannon-Wiener indices of shrub and arbor layers and altitude, respectively (P < 0.001). Logarithmic curve fitting reached significant levels between N value and soil organic matter, and total nitrogen, respectively (R2 > 0.794,R2 = 0.815,P < 0.0001). Greater forest naturalness was observed at sites at an altitude of 1118-1863 m. At an altitude of <970 m, forest naturalness sharply decreased. Based on the different classes of forest naturalness, some corresponding measures for discussion and management were proposed.
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