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李志鹏,杜震洪,张丰,曹敏杰,刘仁义.基于GIS的浙北近海海域生态系统健康评价.生态学报,2016,36(24):8183~8193 本文二维码信息
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基于GIS的浙北近海海域生态系统健康评价
A GIS-based health assessment of the offshore marine ecosystem in north Zhejiang Province
投稿时间:2015-05-24  修订日期:2016-10-16
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201505241040
关键词生态系统  GIS  空间插值  热点分析
Key Wordseco-environmental quality  GIS  spatial interpolation  hotspot analysis
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(41471313,41101356,41101371,41171321);国家科技基础性工作专项资助项目(2012FY112300);海洋公益性行业科研专项经费资助项目(2015418003,201305012);浙江省攻关资助项目(2014C33G20,2013C33051)
作者单位E-mail
李志鹏 浙江大学, 浙江省资源与环境信息系统重点实验室, 杭州 310028;浙江大学, 地理信息科学研究所, 杭州 310027  
杜震洪 浙江大学, 浙江省资源与环境信息系统重点实验室, 杭州 310028;浙江大学, 地理信息科学研究所, 杭州 310027  
张丰 浙江大学, 浙江省资源与环境信息系统重点实验室, 杭州 310028;浙江大学, 地理信息科学研究所, 杭州 310027 zhangfeng.zju@gmail.com 
曹敏杰 浙江大学, 浙江省资源与环境信息系统重点实验室, 杭州 310028;浙江大学, 地理信息科学研究所, 杭州 310027  
刘仁义 浙江大学, 浙江省资源与环境信息系统重点实验室, 杭州 310028;浙江大学, 地理信息科学研究所, 杭州 310027  
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摘要:
在浙江省北部地区经济高速发展,科学高效利用海洋资源的同时,也不可避免的对浙北近海海域的生态系统造成一定的威胁。为了降低涉海工程对海洋生态环境可能造成的不利影响,通过分析浙江省北部海域高浊度、复杂水体等特点,利用层次分析法从水环境、沉积环境和海洋生物多样性构建了浙北近海海域生态系统评价指标体系,采用熵权法确定了相关因子的权重。在此基础上,综合GIS空间分析方法、数学模型,对2009年至2012年浙江省北部海域进行了实证研究。结果表明:(1)浙江省北部近海海域生态系统整体上处于不健康状态。含量较高的无机氮和磷酸盐及较低的海洋初级生产力是影响其环境质量的主要因素。(2)浙北近海海域生态系统主要薄弱区域与人类活动格局基本一致,由此推断,人类活动是影响浙北海域生态系统健康状态的主要因素。总体上,从2009至2012年浙北近海海域生态系统健康呈现逐年恶化的趋势。
Abstract:
The coastal waters around the northern part of Zhejiang Province are confronted by serious environmental threats caused by the rapid development of the economy and highly efficient use of marine resources. In order to reduce and mitigate the possible negative effects of larger sea-related projects on the marine ecological environment, we built an evaluation index system to assess the offshore ecological environmental quality by analyzing the complexity and high turbidity of the water around the northern part of Zhejiang Province, as well as implementing an AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process)-method based on three aspects: water environment, depositional environment, and marine biodiversity. We used the entropy weight method to determine the weight of the relevant factors, and used the comprehensive index weighting method to calculate the marine ecological environment comprehensive index (S). When S ≥ 75, it implies that marine ecosystem is healthy; when 60 ≤ S < 75, it suggests that marine ecosystem is sub-healthy; And when S < 60, it indicates that the marine ecosystem is unhealthy. On the basis of this, we integrated GIS spatial analysis methods with a mathematical model to practically study, on a macro scale, the coastal water around the northern shores of Zhejiang Province from 2009 to 2012. The results were as follows: (1) the ecological environmental quality of the coastal water around the northern shores of Zhejiang Province are in an unhealthy state, especially in Hangzhou Bay, Xiangshan Harbor, Sanmen Bay, and Ningbo-Zhou Shan sea area. The high inorganic nitrogen and phosphate contents and weak ocean primary productivity are the main factors affecting the quality of this environment. These factors cause high organic pollutant index values, high levels of eutrophication, and serious marine pollution in this area. (2) The hotspot analysis results showed that the pollutants are mainly concentrated in the Ningbo-Zhou Shan coastal waters, Hangzhou Bay, Sanmen Bay, and some other river estuaries. These regions have poor biological survival and low biodiversity due to economic development, construction of large sea-related projects, overfishing, and serious water pollution. In addition, the complexity and high turbidity of the water around the northern shores of Zhejiang Province cause weak ocean primary productivity, which affects the health of the entire ecosystem. (3) The analysis indicated that the unhealthy areas are mainly distributed in the vicinities of the coast, estuaries, and harbors, and the distribution of these areas with low ecological environment quality is similar to the human activities pattern, which suggests that human activities are the main factors affecting the health status of this marine ecosystem. In general, ecological environment quality in the coastal waters around northern Zhejiang Province progressively worsened between 2009 and 2012. This empirical study shows that the index system constructed for eco-environmental quality assessment and the method adopted reflects the actual state of a particular ecosystem and the internal relationships of the ecological system. Furthermore, our study results can provide a scientific basis for improving ecological environmental quality in the northern coastal waters of Zhejiang Province.
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