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刘文婧,耿涌,孙露,田旭,张黎明.基于能值理论的有色金属矿产资源开采生态补偿机制.生态学报,2016,36(24):8154~8163 本文二维码信息
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基于能值理论的有色金属矿产资源开采生态补偿机制
An emergy-based analysis and ecological compensation mechanism in China's non-ferrous metal mining sector
投稿时间:2015-05-30  修订日期:2016-10-14
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201505301084
关键词有色金属采选  可持续发展  能值  生态补偿
Key Wordsmining  sustainable development  emergy  ecological compensation
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(1325006,71461137008,71311140172)
作者单位E-mail
刘文婧 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 中国科学院污染生态与环境工程重点实验室, 沈阳 110016;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
耿涌 上海交通大学环境科学与工程学院, 上海 200240 ygeng@sjtu.edu.cn 
孙露 日本国立环境研究所, 社会环境研究中心, 日本 305-8506  
田旭 中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所, 中国科学院污染生态与环境工程重点实验室, 沈阳 110016;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
张黎明 青岛大学经济学院, 青岛 266071  
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摘要:
矿产资源为中国经济的高速增长提供了不竭的动力,但在其开采过程中也带来了诸多的环境问题。在当今资源、环境的约束下,如何采取适宜的量化方法来表征矿产资源开采所带来的生态环境损失,并在此基础上确定合理的生态补偿标准,成为了一项重要的研究课题。选取我国有色金属采选业为研究案例,并基于能值分析方法,核算了矿产资源开采过程中造成的直接、间接环境损失,提出了生态补偿指数,用以为生态补偿标准的制定提供参考依据。对能值分析指标的计算和分析结果表明,从可持续发展角度,生态补偿指数为89.18%,说明我国有色金属采选业的环境投入较高,需要的补偿费用较多;能值产出率为9.24,表明有色金属采选业的生产效率高;环境承载率为238,呈现高负荷状态,区域环境所承受的压力巨大;可持续发展指数为0.039,表明我国有色金属采选业处于不可持续状态,急需采取相关环境保护措施进行调整。从经济成本角度,我国有色金属采选业需要的生态环境补偿费用约为4.38×109元,现阶段征收的资源税费远低于生态恢复的治理费用,不能够覆盖生态修复治理成本。最后根据本文研究内容得出我国有色金属采选业面临的主要问题,分别从宏观角度、微观角度及长远角度3个方面给出了相应的政策建议。
Abstract:
Resource mining provides a solid foundation for China's rapid economic growth. However, mining activities also lead to various environmental issues, such as wastewater discharge, soil contamination, and air pollution. Under these resource and environmental constraints, it is critical to quantitatively evaluate the ecological loss caused by mining activities and to determine the appropriate values on ecological compensation. Many evaluation methods are in use to assess the comprehensive performance of this sector, such as material flow analysis, life cycle analysis, and substance flow analysis. However, these traditional methods cannot mimic the real contribution of local ecosystems since they focus on individual aspects of resource use and system metabolism and discard other parameters and driving forces. In addition, they do not account for the value of existing natural capital, leading to incomplete assessments of the whole system. In addition, these methods lack the ability to address waste and emission management, as well as recycling strategies, resulting in policies optimizing one individual resource or flow, rather than tracking diverse, non-linear interactions between human society and the natural system in which economic processes are embedded. Emergy analysis provides a "supply-side" evaluation by focusing on nature's investment, and can assign environmental impacts more fairly, discouraging inefficient and unnecessary resource depletion. By quantifying both the direct and indirect environmental costs of resource mining, and related waste management and disposal, emergy analysis is a suitable approach in assessing the overall performance of the mining sector, leading to accurate decision-support and integrated measures on protecting mining resources. In this study, China's non-ferrous metal mining sector was examined to detect direct and indirect losses caused during the mining processes by employing emergy analysis. An Ecological Compensation Index (ECI) was developed in order to provide rational references for determining ecological compensation standards. Our results indicate that, from the perspective of sustainable development, the ECI was 89.18%, indicating that more renewable resources have been input into the non-ferrous metal mining sector, and more money is needed for ecological compensation. The Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) was 9.24, indicating that the production efficiency of the non-ferrous metal mining sector was greater, whereas the Environment Loading Ratio (ELR) was 238, indicating a greater environmental load on the surrounding ecosystem. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (ESI) was 0.039, indicating that the system was unsustainable, and there is a need to adopt appropriate environmental protection measures. From an economic perspective, the ecological compensation value for the non-ferrous metal mining sector should be 438 million Chinese Yuan (CNY). However, the current resource tax is far less than the real expense for ecological remediation and cannot cover its treatment costs. Finally, policy implications at the macro-, micro-, and long-term levels increased in order to address the main problems that China's non-ferrous metal mining sector is facing. For instance, the overall development strategies on the non-ferrous metal mining sector should move from the traditional "end-of-pipe" treatment toward source control. Pollution prevention-oriented approaches, such as wastewater reuse/recycling, brownfield redevelopment, and the collection and recycling of discarded non-ferrous metals, should be promoted so that the overall extraction and processing of original non-ferrous metals can be reduced, and the corresponding environmental emissions can be mitigated.
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